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Sunday, November 22, 2009

READING-WRITING: NEW TEACHING METHODS





Although previous physiologic studies of brain optic cortex carried out by Maynard-Smith (The problems of Biology. 1986:91-90), established that human brain doesn't store full images, but elementary forms or lights and shades that it reconstructs according to necessity -today- Stanislas Dehaene (Experimental Cognitive Psychology/Collège of France), wide these studies carrying out other complementary ones about how the mind gives sense to written language. Dehaene says that human ancestral neural circuits exists that leaving visual outlines evolved toward progressive simplifications of current writing systems. Make comprehensible the above, the fact that today we known that all primate writing systems use a basic set of shapes. The brains of monkeys contain neurons that preferentially responds to an alphabet with forms: T, L, Y (that reproduce natural visual scenes) and recycle (with their corresponding cortex), transforming them into cultural codes, transferring the letters of one page into comprehensible language. Functional image studies carried out in illiterate natives give bill of their communication preferences for faces and objects with details of natural contours: the Y of tree branches is an example. By the way a cerebral region exists (letterbox), located in the left brain hemisphere, specialized in written characters, phonemes and words. Based on the above-mentioned some question the inclusion in our alphabet of letters: p, q, d and b.

Our brain didn't have as objective to evolve toward reading-writing. Our humanity permit that culture evolved to be learned by our brains, adapting certain cerebral areas to reading, mathematics, music, religion, etc, adapting to any cultural task, giving as resultant that now we impose to our children the reading. But will the current methods of reading-writing be those but appropriate?. According to Dehaene, all children are qualified to learn but. They are not white pages. When being born they already have brain circuits, to apprehend the language of the nature. Therefore, teaching methods should consider the characteristics of the existent circuits in the minds of the children. Current reading doesn't have anything to do with our systems of ancestral visual recognition. Besides it, during reading, our brains make the tremendous effort of decomposing all letters and graphemas, in parallel, to high speed. It is necessary to vary teaching methods according to results that experimental science, goes demonstrating.

NUEVOS METODOS DE ENSEÑANZA DE LECTO-ESCRITURA

Aunque estudios fisiologicos previos de la corteza óptica cerebral realizados por Maynard-Smith (The problems of Biology. 1986:91-90), establecieron que el cerebro humano no almacena imágenes integras, sino formas elementales o claroscuros que reconstruye según necesidad -hoy- Stanislas Dehaene (Experimental Cognitive Psychology/Collège of France), amplia estos estudios realizando otros complementarios en relación a cómo la mente da sentido al lenguaje escrito. Para el, existen circuitos neurales ancestrales humanos que partiendo de esquemas visuales evolucionaron hacia simplificaciones progresivas de sistemas de escritura. Torna comprensible lo anterior el que hoy se conozca que todos los sistemas de escritura primatologicos emplean un set basico de formas. Los cerebros de los monos contienen neuronas que responden preferencialmente a un alfabeto con formas : T, L, Y (que reproducen escenas visuales naturales), que reciclamos (con su correspondiente cortex), convirtiéndolas en códigos culturales, trasladando las letras de una pagina, a lenguaje comprensible. Estudios imagenologicos funcionales realizados en indígenas analfabetos dan cuenta de sus preferencias de comunicación por caras y objetos con detalles de contornos naturales : la Y de las ramas de los arboles. Por cierto existe una región cerebral (letterbox), ubicada en el hemisferio cerebral izquierdo, especializada en caracteres escritos, fonemas y palabras. En base a lo anterior algunos cuestionan la inclusión en nuestro alfabeto de las letras : p, q, d y b.

Nuestro cerebro no tuvo como objetivo evolucionar hacia la lecto-escritura. Nuestra humanidad dejo que la cultura evolucionara para ser aprendida por nuestros cerebros, adaptando ciertas areas cerebrales a la lectura, matematicas, música, religión, etc, adaptandose a cualquier tarea cultural, dando como resultante que ahora impongamos a nuestros niños la lectura. Pero ¿seran los metodos actuales de lecto-escritura los mas adecuados?. Segun Dehaene, los niños están capacitados para aprender mas. No son paginas en blanco. Al nacer ya disponen de circuitos cerebrales, para aprehender el lenguaje de la naturaleza. Por tanto, los métodos de enseñanza deberían considerar las características de los circuitos existentes en las mentes de los niños. La lectura actual no tiene nada que ver con nuestros sistemas de reconocimiento visual ancestral. Por si fuera poco durante la lectura, nuestros cerebros hacen el tremendo esfuerzo de descomponer todas las letras y grafemas en paralelo, a alta velocidad. Hay que variar la enseñanza acorde con los resultados que la ciencia experimental, va demostrando.

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