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Tuesday, October 09, 2012

2012:NOBEL PRIZE OF MEDICINE



Although,  the manipulation of cell nuclei in plants and animals, has several pioneers: Joachim Hammerling (1930/Max Planck/Marine Biology), for his work in the alga Acetabularia, Americans Robert Briggs and Thomas King (1952) were the first in transplants of nuclei in frogs. However, the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine has been awarded to another pioneer: 1) John B. Gurdon (Cambridge University, UK), who replaced in 1962 the immature oocyte nucleus of a frog by a mature nucleus coming from an intestinal cell of a tadpole. A modified egg that generated a normal tadpole, showing that the DNA of a mature cell retains all the information necessary to develop all the cells of a frog ie: the mature nucleus of a specialized cell can be reversed to an immature, pluripotent, functional state.

And to a a practical visionary: 2) Shinya Yamanaka, who in 2006 identified 4 basic genes that kept immature the nucleus isolated from embryonic stem cells grown in the lab. Yamanaka introduced these genes in various combinations to mature connective tissue cells, fibroblasts, from mice, reprogramming them to pluripotent, immature cells : induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), capable of being converted subsequently into mature cell types, showing that mature cells are not intended to be in a specialized state forever. Such discoveries will give : i) a new vision of development of cells and organisms. II) Skin cells from patients with different diseases could be reprogrammed and examined to see why and how they differ from healthy cells. III) Possibility to be used in regenerative medicine: replacing damaged organs with our own body cells. IV) Study distinct diseases. V) To develop new diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

PREMIO NOBEL DE MEDICINA, 2012

Aunque la manipulación de nucleos celulares en vegetales y animales, tiene varios pioneros : Joachim Hammerling (1930/Max Planck/Marine Biology/), por sus trabajos en la alga Acetabularia, los americanos Robert Briggs y Thomas King (1952), fueron los primeros en realizar trasplantes de nucleos en ranas. No obstante, el Premio Nobel de Medicina 2012, ha sido otorgado a otro pionero :1) John B. Gurdon (Cambridge University,UK), por reemplazar en 1962 el nucleo inmaduro del ovulo de una rana por el nucleo maduro de una celula intestinal de un renacuajo. Un ovulo modificado que terminaría convirtiéndose en un renacuajo normal, demostrandose que el DNA de una celula madura retiene toda la informacion necesaria para desarrollar todas las celulas de una rana, es decir: el nucleo maduro de una celula especializada puede ser revertido a un estado funcional inmaduro, pluripotencial.

Y, a un visionario practico-intuitivo: 2) Shinya Yamanaka por identificar el 2006 4 genes basicos que mantenían inmaduros los nucleos de células madre aisladas de embriones, cultivadas en el laboratorio. Yamanaka introdujo estos genes en diferentes combinaciones a celulas maduras del tejido conectivo, fibroblastos etc, de ratones, reprogramandolas a celulas inmaduras, pluripotenciales : induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), las que fueron capaces de convertirse ulteriormente en distintos tipos de celulas maduras, demostrándose que las células maduras no están destinadas a estar en un estado especializado para siempre. Tales descubrimientos permitirán : I) Tener una nueva visión del desarrollo de células y organismos. II) Las células de la piel obtenidas de pacientes con distintas enfermedades serán reprogramadas y examinadas para determinar en que difieren de células sanas.III) Posibilidad de empleo en medicina regenerativa: reemplazo de organos dañados por celulas corporales propias. IV) Estudiar distintas enfermedades. V) Desarrollar nuevos métodos diagnosticos y terapéuticos..

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