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Monday, April 22, 2013

THE CYCLIC UNIVERSE


Looking Fritz Zwicky in 1933, the curvature of certain spatial areas of visible matter and alteration of orbital velocities of galaxies, he assumed that such phenomena were produced by gravitational effects of a matter that permeated the entire universe which he called dark matter because it does not interacts with light and does not emit enough electromagnetic radiation to be detected. Today it is estimated that ordinary matter accounts for 4.9% of observable universe, dark matter :21% and dark energy :70%. Although most theoretical physicists argue that this energy is a form of matter that promotes accelerating expansion of the Universe it is unknown its ultimate nature. Dark energy may become dark matter if it is hit by baryonic particles, leading to particle excitations in some type of dynamic field (quintessence). Although the composition of this hypothetical dark matter is unknown, it is assumed that it is constituted by baryonic dark matter, ordinary and heavy neutrinos, neutralinos, WIMPS, axions, astronomical bodies such as dwarf stars, certain planets collectively called MACHO, non bright gas clouds and others. A candidate for dark matter is the neutralino which after colliding with his couple would produce an excess of charged particles easily detected by AMS-02. Other candidates are strangelets, endowed with very large mass. None of the above items are part of the standard model of particle physics.

To prove the existence of dark matter was installed in the International Space Station the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), provided with a magnet capable of creating a magnetic field 3000 times stronger than the Earth, whose conduction was commissioned to the Nobel Prize Samue Ting. After 18 months of intense work, Ting announced the detection of an unusual excess of positrons (destroy of antimatter particles, create positrons) in cosmic ray flux (containing high energy particles before interacting with Earth's atmosphere), analyzed by the AMS. Ting argues that detected positrons could have been produced by: a) collision of two dark matter particles b) rotating stars that emit radiation. The AMS, will allow to understand the origin of the universe whose genesis requires equal amounts (principle of symmetry) of matter and antimatter (counterpart of electrons), to analyze dark matter and to measure cosmic rays. Following the logic of current knowledge and several physical hypothesis: to every action there is a reaction, it could be assumed that the Big Bang could have been generated from a previous supercondensation of energy particles, similar to which generate black holes. The presence of dark energy in the universe limiting its expansion would be the prelude to the obvious: the limited universe will finish shrinking in one point (Big Crunch), only to re-occur again and again trough a cyclical process known as Big Bang.

EL UNIVERSO CICLICO

Al observar Fritz Zwicky en 1933, la curvatura de ciertas areas espaciales de materia visible y la alteración de las velocidades orbitales de las galaxias, supuso que tales fenomenos eran producidos por efectos gravitacionales de una materia que permeaba todo el Universo a la que denomino materia oscura, porque no interactua con la luz y no emite suficiente radiación electromagnética para ser detectada. Hoy se calcula que la materia ordinaria da cuenta de un 4,9%, del universo observable, la materia oscura un 21% y la energía oscura un 70%. Aunque la mayoría de físicos teoricos sostienen que esta energía, es una forma de materia que induce la aceleración de la expansión del Universo se desconoce su naturaleza última. No obstante, la energía oscura puede convertirse en materia oscura si es golpeada por partículas bariónicas, conduciendo a excitaciones de partículas en algún tipo de campo dinámico (quintaesencia). Aunque se desconoce la composición de la hipotética materia oscura, se asume que esta constituida por materia oscura no barionica: neutrinos ordinarios y pesados, neutralinos, WIMPS, axiones, cuerpos astronómicos como las estrellas enanas, ciertos planetas colectivamente llamados MACHO, nubes de gases no luminosos y otros. Un candidato para la materia oscura es el neutralino que al colisionar con su par produciría un exceso de partículas cargadas fáciles de ser detectadas por el AMS-02. Otros candidatos son los strangelets, dotados de masa muy grande. Ninguno de los elementos mencionados forma parte del modelo standard de la física de partículas.

Para demostrar la existencia de la materia oscura se instalo en la Estación Espacial Internacional, el Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), proveida de un iman capaz de crear un campo magnético 3000 veces más intenso que el terrestre, cuya conducción fue encargada al Premio Nobel Samuel Ting. Tras 18 meses de intenso trabajo, Ting anuncio la detección de un inusual exceso de positrones (al destruirse entre si las partículas de antimateria, crean positrones), en el flujo de rayos cosmicos (contienen partículas de alta energía antes de interactuar con la atmosfera terrestre), analizados por el AMS. Ting arguye que los positrones detectados podrian haber sido producidos por : a) colision de 2 particulas de materia oscura b) por estrellas rotatorias que emiten radiación. El AMS, permitira comprender el origen del universo cuya génesis requiere cantidades iguales (principio de simetria), de materia y antimateria (contraparte de los electrones), analizar la materia oscura y medir los rayos cosmicos. Siguiendo la lógica de los conocimientos e hipótesis físicas actuales : a toda acción corresponde una reacción, es de suponer que el Big Bang podría haberse generado a partir de una previa supercondensacion de partículas y energía similar a los producidos en los agujeros negros. La presencia de energía oscura conteniendo la expansión del universo solo seria el preludio de lo obvio : que el universo es limitado y terminara contrayendose en un punto (Big Crunch), solo para volver a producir una y otra vez, el proceso cíclico conocido como Big Bang.

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