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Saturday, August 19, 2006

Peruvian Looted Headdress.


The news of the recovering of a crown (seem of gold) -manufactured by peruvian prehispanic artisans of the Moche Period -I- (100 years a.C), of art smugglers hands, is turning around the world. According to Walter Alva (discoverer of Royal Tombs of Sipan), expert in Moche culture, the crown and similar objects were extracted illegally from a mine, located in the Hill The Liberty/ valley of Jequetepeque/Pacasmayo/ Peru, in 1986. Michel Van Rijn, former collector of art and Michelle Roycroft, detective of the Unit of Art and Antiquities of the british Scotland Yard collaborated in the recovery of the archaeological piece, by means of a trick. They urged an agent to offer 1,8 millions of dollars to a collector lawyer that possessed the crown in an office of the center of London. As it is known, almost the 50% of our archaeological heritage recuperated of diverse tombs, are located in foreign museums or in private collections. As the crown will be returned to Peru and Michel Van Rijn, has compared the piece, with the Mona Lisa of Leonardo, we will take advantage of to carry out a critical analysis of the crown.

a) we reckon that the piece measures 0,6 m of wide for 0,5 m of high. By its dimensions it is dificcult that the piece had been built with a single block b) Although foreign news puts forward that the crown is of pure gold, the attention calls us about the existence of semicircle dark areas (tentacles) and other lower (claws). One must recall that the Moche, were accustomed to cover the copper with 10% of superficial gold (tumbaga) c) Great part of the piece (laminate, gold great central piece), lights up worked with the technic of the rolled by hammering. d) 5 tentacles (octopus like: 3 rights and 2 superiors), seem to emerge of a laminates unique central. 2 lefts seem to have been inserted by hammering (welding), generator of heat. The 2 lower claws and the last left tentacle also seem to have been inserted to the central piece by the technic of welding. The tentacles show imperfections of relief. Because of it, the piece must belong to the Moche Period –I- (100 years a.C.). e) As not tracks of the hammering in the tentacles exist, it is inferred that they reheated constantly the laminate, to avoid the emergency of cracks f) the external triangles to the tentacles were made with special technic (generation of windows, with artifacts of fine tip)

g) The external 1/3 of the tentacles, exhibits central semicircle cracks, carried out to facilitate the twisted tentacles spiral. h) The existence of staples (tacks, hammer blows and flattened by the back), in the lateral areas of the central face of the cat (God :Ai Apaec), suggest that the face was molding externally to the great laminate piece, having being worked in molds of wood, stone or perhaps wax and tuned up with technic of chiseled, stuffed and repujado, finally been adhered to the great central laminates piece. i) the thick eyebrows of the cat remain open mercy to gross laminars clamps (technic of linking) j) 2 central holes above the eyebrows are suggestive of some important ornament, dismantled for the moment. k) Finally the eyes represent inlays of lapislazuli. We have serious interest to see the back of the crown, to solidify our presumptions.
Corona recuperada.

La noticia de la recuperación de una corona (al parecer de oro) -fabricada por artesanos prehispánicos peruanos del Periodo Moche -I- (100 años d.C), de manos de contrabandistas de arte, está dando la vuelta al mundo. Según Walter Alva, experto en cultura Moche, la corona y objetos similares fueron extraidos ilegalmente de una mina, ubicada en el Cerro La Libertad/ valle de Jequetepeque/Pacasmayo/ Peru, en el año: 1986. Michel Van Rijn, ex coleccionista de arte y Michelle Roycroft, detective de la Unidad de Arte y Antigüedades de la Scotland Yard británica colaboraron en la recuperación de la pieza arqueológica, mediante un ardid. Instaron a un agente a ofrecer 1,8 millones de dolares al abogado coleccionista que la retenia en una oficina del centro de Londres. Como se sabe , casi el 50% de nuestro patrimonio arqueológico importante desenterrado de diversas tumbas, esta fuera del Peru en museos o en colecciones privadas. Como la corona será regresada al Peru y Michel Van Rijn, ha comparado la pieza, con la Mona Lisa de Leonardo, aprovecharemos para realizar un analisis critico de la corona.

a) estimamos que la pieza mide 0,6 m de ancho por 0,5 m de alto. Por sus dimensiones es dificil que halla sido construida con un solo bloque b) Aunque la información exterior, aduce que la corona es de oro puro, nos llama la atención la existencia de areas oscuras semicirculares (tentáculos) y otras inferiores (garras). Hay que recordar que los Moche, acostumbraban revestir al cobre con 10 % de oro superficial (tumbaga) c) Gran parte de la lamina luce trabajada con la técnica del laminado por martilleo. d) 5 tentáculos (3 derechos y 2 superiores), parecen emerger de una lamina unica central. 2 izquierdos parecen haber sido insertados por martilleo (welding), generador de calor. Las 2 garras inferiores y el ultimo tentáculo izquierdo tambien parecen haber sido insertados a la pieza central por la tecnica del welding. e) Las láminas de los tentáculos muestran imperfecciones de relieve. Por ello, la mascara puede ser adscrita al Periodo Moche –I- (100 años d.C.). Como no existen huellas del martilleo en los tentáculos, se infiere que recalentaban constantemente las laminas, para evitar la emergencia de grietas f) los aditamentos triangulares externos a los brazos fueron hechos con técnicas de calado (generación de ventanas, con buriles de punta fina)

g) El 1/3 externo de los tentáculos, exhibe hendiduras semicirculares centrales, realizada para facilitar el torcido tentacular espiral. h) La existencia de remaches (tachuelas, martilladas y achatadas por el reverso), en las areas laterales de la cara central del felino (dios Al Apaec), sugieren que la cara fue moldeada externamente a la gran lámina central, habiendo siendo trabajada en moldes de madera, piedra o cera perdida y afinada con técnicas de cincelado, embutido y repujado, para finalmente ser adherida a la gran lámina central. i) los gruesos parpados del felino permanecen abiertos merced al empleo de gruesas grapas laminares (tecnicas de unión) j) Existen 2 agujeros centrales por encima de los párpados, sugerentes de la incrustación de algun ornamento importante, desarticulado por el momento. k) Finalmente los ojos representan incrustaciones de lapislázuli. Seria interesante ver el reverso de la corona, para solidificar nuestras presunciones.

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