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Monday, August 07, 2006

I am reading: Children learn science, making experiments.


Gorges Charpak (Poland. 1924--), particle’s physicist, Prize Nóbel Winner: 1992, Pierre Léna, astrophysicist and former Director of the Institute National of la Recherche Pedagogique of France and Yves Quéré, physicist of the University of Paris-Orsay, have written: Children and the science (Editorial Siglo XXI. 2006, Argentina, "L Enfant et la Science". Edition Odile Jacob, October, 2005, Paris), fruit of their experience of teaching sciences to children less than 12 years, in diverse places of the world, especially in France. Charpak, collected previous children sciences teachings ideas of pioneering experiences of teams of French educators, carried out in Chicago, in 1990. Since 1996, to the date expanded his experience implemented the Program of teaching: “The hands in the dough” (Chapter : II. Emphasizing in scientific experiments in elementary schools, based on principles of creativity and problem-solved and that alone discovering is followed by active learning) and the Palace of the Sciences (series of parlors of quantum physic, relativity, classical physic, each/one with its own language), delight of children. With programs designed by scientific of renown (Chapter.VII), questions are presented and many stimulating experiments are carried out. (Cap.II). In an experiment designed to understand the density, children of 5 years and their their professors are asked: ¿which of the following products: judias (Phaseolus vulgaris L), grapefruit, bananas, lemon, will sink and which will float?. All they say that the judias will float, although these be the first in being sunk. Receiving these courses costs 15 euro each year to each boy less than 12 years

The book emphasizes the to long and innate desire to learn of children, provided them be stimulated with alive methodologies. All the previous thing are refreshed in notes dedicated to teaching of sciences, relation science-language, language of science in the school, teacher and science, teacher and teaching, etc (Chapters -IV-V-). Charpak said that in 1996, alone 3% of the French primary schools, carried courses of sciences. Charpak that aspires to a true democratization of the sciences in the world assures that the human knowledge has had 3 revolutions: that of Neolithic confronted with the birth of the agriculture, that of the Renaissance related to the genesis of the modern science and the present one, associate to revolution and discovery of the laws of quantum physic. Charpak, believes that the science is the same one in any place of the world although for their teaching aspects should keep in mind sociocultural aspects. In Vietnam, their group carried out modules related to the cane of sugar, in Brazil with boas, in Cambodia with general aspects of dengue fever. What is important is transmitt to the children the admiration by the nature, reading it, by means of experiments. The one that investigates by means of experiments lacks ideologies, alone search the truth. Pioneering intents of teaching of the sciences to children, are carried out for some years in Lima, under the conduction of the Peruvian physic : Modesto Montoya.

Voy leyendo: Los niños y la ciencia.

Gorges Charpak
(Polonia. 1924--), fisico de particulas, Premio Nóbel de Fisica: 1992, Pierre Léna astrofisico y ex Director del Institute National de la Recherche Pedagogique de Francia y Yves Quéré, fisico de la Universidad de Paris-Orsay, han escrito : Los niños y la ciencia (Editorial Siglo XXI, 2006, Argentina, ”L Enfant et la Science”.Editorial Odile Jacob, Octubre, 2005, Paris), fruto de su experiencia de enseñanza de las ciencias a menores de 12 años, en diversos lugares del mundo, en especial en Francia. Charpak, recogió ideas de enseñanzas de ciencias a niños, de experiencias pioneras de teams de educadores franceses, realizadas en Chicago, en 1990. Desde 1996, a la fecha amplió su experiencia implementando el Programa de enseñanza : Con las manos en la masa (Capitulo:II. Enfasis en experimentos cientificos, en escuelas elementales, basados en principios de creatividad y resolución de problemas y, que solo descubriendo, se aprende) y el Palacio de las Ciencias (serie de salones de fisica cuántica, relatividad, fisica clásica, c/uno con su propio lenguaje), delicia de los niños. Con programas diseñados por cientificos de renombre (Cap.VII), se plantean preguntas y realizan experimentos estimulantes (Cap.II). En un experimento diseñado para comprender la densidad, se pregunta a niños de 5 años y a sus profesores :¿cual de los siguientes productos: judias (Phaseolus vulgaris L), pomelo, platanos, limón, se hundirán y cuales flotarán?. Todos dicen que las judias flotarán, aunque estas sean las primeras en hundirse. Recibir estos cursos cuesta 15 euros al año a c/ niño menor de 12 años

En el libro se enfatiza la avidéz e innato deseo de aprender de los niños, siempre que se les estimule con metodologías motivadoras. Todo lo anterior dá lugar a notas dedicadas a didactica de las ciencias, relacion ciencia-lenguaje, el lenguaje de la ciencia en la escuela, maestros y ciencia, maestros y pedagogía, etc (Cap.IV-V-). Dice Charpak que en 1996, solo el 3% de las escuelas primarias francesas, llevaban cursos de ciencias. Charpak que aspira a una verdadera democratización de las ciencias en el mundo asegura que el conocimiento humano ha tenido 3 revoluciones : la del Neolitico confrontada con el nacimiento de la agricultura, la del Renacimiento relacionada con la génesis de la ciencia moderna y la actual, asociada a la revolución y descubrimiento de las leyes de la fisica cuántica. Charpak, cree que la ciencia es la misma en cualquier lugar del mundo aunque para su enseñanza se deben tener en cuenta aspectos socioculturales. En Vietnam, su grupo realizó módulos relacionados con la caña de azúcar, en Brasil con boas, en Camboya con aspectos generales del dengue. Lo importante es trasmitir a los niños la admiración por la naturaleza, leyéndola, mediante experimentos. El que indaga mediante experimentos carece de ideologías, solo busca la verdad. Intentos pioneros de enseñanza de las ciencias a niños, son realizados desde hace algunos años en Lima, bajo la conducción del fisico peruano Modesto Montoya.

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