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Wednesday, August 09, 2006

Supertelescopes


The first telescope of Galileo (1609), comprised a main pipe of 13, 36 cm, an biconvex objective of 5, 1 cm of diameter and an eyepiece of flat-concavity of 2, 6 cm of diameter. With this instrument, a capable Galileo, discovered the phases of Venus, 4 satellites of Jupiter, the surface of the Moon, the sunspot, finishing endorsing the Heliocentric System. In barely 400 years, the humanity has passed from among 14 to 20 times increments of the size of the objects (telescope of Galileo), to the introduction of enlargements and a series of optical innovations, with which one have begun to see and to photograph galaxies, stars and distant planets, enlarging the human vision, millions of times. An improvement in continuous progress. It is routine today, to contemplate clearly images daily, of brown dwarf stars, nebulas and planets in formation. Mercy to the employment of the Very Large Telescope (VLT: main diameter :8, 2m of diameter, under custody of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), located in Monte Paranal, Chile, there are cooked 45 scientific articles of first magnitude, each month, alone there. The optic telescopes: Hobby-Eberly (Texas-USA) and the Keck Twins (Hawaii), whose lenses diameters measure: 11 m. And 10 meters, respectively are the largest in the world. The spatial telescopes (that orbit around the Earth, to avoid atmospheric interferences) : Hubble (main lens: 2,4 m) and Spitzer (with internal systems cooled cryogenically, main lens: 0,85 m of diameter), have incorporated, ultraviolet (UV), and infrared (IR), rays for view areas done not grasp of natural, by other telescopes.

The things do not remain there. The European Union (EU), mercy to swedish and English astronomers initiative, aspired to build a supertelescope: the Overwhelmingly Telescope (OWL), with lenses of 100 m. of diameter with the one it is expected to see planets of the same size that the Earth orbiting around their suns, some -perhaps- with signs of life (presence of :CH4, Oxygen, chlorophyll, H20), primitive galaxies, etc. For the time being this proposal has been differed for budgetary reasons (cost: 1, 5 billion euros). In its place and for the 2010, the EU, has determined to initiate the construction of a supertelescope, the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), of 42 meters of diameter, pressed by the American/Canadian competence, that for the same period plans to build one, with a main lens of 30 meters of diameter : Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The key of these telescopes are its main lenses, since to greater size greater concentration of light and therefore, better images. For the time being, themselves have not had problems to build in a single block, lenses from among 8-11 m. Nevertheless, to build main lenses of 30 to 42 m. of diameter, is needed to build them for parts (lens of Keck Twins, is comprised of 36 small hexagonal blocks). Is possible, also to adapt 3 or 4 blocks of lenses of 8 meters, in one alone. Another innovation, has been the construction of spheric lenses of 8 m. of diameter, instead of the usual parabolic. Although with this method, is possible to serialize them, it has the optic disadvantage to lack focus, corrigible defect with a series of corrector lenses. In Peru, we have had prehispanic observatories and in these days we have the radio-observatory of Jicamarca.

Supertelescopios.

El primer telescopio de Galileo (1609), constaba de un tubo principal de 13, 36 cm, un objetivo biconvexo de 5, 1 cm de diámetro y un ocular plano-cóncavo de 2, 6 cm de diámetro. Con este instrumento, un notable Galileo, descubriria las fases de Venus, 4 satélites de Júpiter, la superficie de la Luna, las manchas solares, terminando refrendando al Sistema Heliocéntrico. En apenas 400 años, se ha pasado del incremento de entre 14 a 20 veces, el tamaño de los objetos (telescopio de Galileo), a la introducción de agrandamientos y una serie de innovaciones ópticas, con las que se han empezado a ver y fotografiar galaxias, estrellas y planetas distantes, agrandando la visión humana, millones de veces. Un perfeccionamiento indetenible. Es rutina hoy, contemplar a diario, imágenes nitidas de estrellas enanas marrones, nebulosas y planetas en formación. Merced al empleo del Very Large Telescope (VLT: diámetro, lente principal :8,2m de diámetro, bajo custodia del European Southern Observatory (ESO), ubicado en Cerro Paranal, Chile, se cocinan 45 articulos cientificos de primera magnitud, c/mes, solo alli. Los telescopios ópticos: Hobby-Eberly (Texas-USA) y los gemelos Keck Twins (Hawai), disponen de lentes cuyos diámetros miden : 11 m. y 10 metros, respectivamente. Los telescopios espaciales (que orbitan alrededor de la Tierra, para evitar interferencias atmosféricas) : Hubble (lente principal: 2,4 m) y Spitzer (con sistemas internos enfriados criogénicamente, lente principal: 0,85 m de diámetro), han incorporado, rayos ultravioleta (UV), e infrarrojos (IR), para visibilizar areas no captadas de natural, por otros telescopios.

Las cosas no quedan alli. La Unión Europea (UE), merced a la iniciativa de astrónomos suecos e ingleses, aspiraba a construir un supertelescopio, el Overwhelmingly Telescope (OWL), con lentes de 100 metros de diámetro con el que esperaban ver planetas semejantes y del mismo tamaño que la Tierra orbitando alrededor de sus soles, algunos -talvez- con signos de vida (presencia de :CH4, Oxigeno, clorofila, H20), galaxias primitivas, etc. De momento esta propuesta ha sido diferida por razones presupuestales (costo: 1, 5 billones de euros). En su lugar y para el 2010, la UE, ha decidido iniciar la construcción de un supertelescopio, el Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), de 42 metros de diámetro, urgida por la competencia americana/canadiense, que para el mismo periodo planea construir uno, con un lente principal de 30 metros de diámetro (Thirty Meter Telescope :TMT). La clave de estos telescopios son sus lentes principales, ya que a mayor tamaño mayor concentración de luz y por ende: mejores imágenes. De momento, no se han tenido problemas para construir en un solo bloque, lentes de entre 8-11 m. No obstante, para construir lentes principales de 30 o, 42 m. de diámetro, se necesita construirlos por partes (lente de los Keck Twins, consta de 36 pequeños bloques hexagonales). Es posible, también acoplar 3 o 4 bloques de lentes, de 8 metros, en uno solo. Otra innovación, ha sido la construcción de lentes esféricos de 8m. de diámetro, en lugar de los usuales parabólicos. Aunque con este método, es posible serializarlos, se tiene la desventaja de carecer de foco óptico, defecto corregible con una serie de lentes correctores. En el Perú, En el Peru, hemos tenido observatorios astronómicos prehispánicos y últimamente destaca el radio-observatorio de Jicamarca.

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