Sunday, May 09, 2010

HAWKING OR THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BRAIN



Of Stephen Hawking one could say that he is the alive proof that if the brain can be provisioned directly with solar energy -by means of sun nanopanels- the rest of the body will be redundant, sustaining the possibility that an intelligent (black hole, a robot), cloud would equal or overcome the intelligence of a human being. Expressed otherwise: if anyone could replace entirely his body (except his head), for other (metallic or of silica), there would not be great difference at the end, because for many years what remains of Hawking’s body is alone good to provision his brain with oxygen and carbohydrates. Among other Hawking’s deficiencies is that he is not able to speak in a natural way. Up to 1980, Hawking affected by Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis (illness of motor neurons), used to be attended with nurses by an or two hours each day. The scientist that spoke in slurred form, dictated his writings to a secretary, giving seminars helped for an interpret that repeated his words in clear form.

When in 1985 he contracted pneumonia he was in the necessity of being attended by nurses the 24 hours, because the tracheostomy leaves him without speech. For a while he alone spelled words, letter for letter elevating his eyebrows when somebody pointed out some letter in a notebook. Until Walt Woltosz, sends him a program (Equalizer/Artificial sound created by direct manipulation of electric currents) that allowed him to select words of a series of menus drawed in the screen of a computer, pressing a switch with his hand, his head or his eyes. If he wanted to say something, he sent the stored words from a desk computer to a Speech Synthesizer. David Mason (Cambridge Adaptive Communication), built for him a small laptop connected to a Speech Synthesizer stuck in turn to his wheel chair. With it he manages 15 words per minute, speaks what he wrote, records it in a disk or prints it. That way he gave many conferences, written several books and scientific papers. Part of the success of his Speech Synthesiser (Speech Plus), is the varied intonation, clear and efficient.

HAWKING O LA IMPORTANCIA DEL CEREBRO

De Stephen Hawking podríamos decir que es la demostración viva de que si el cerebro pudiese aprovisionarse directamente de energía solar -mediante nanopaneles solares- el resto del cuerpo seria redundante, sosteniendo la posibilidad de que una nube (un agujero negro o simplemente un robot), inteligente igualaría o superaria la inteligencia de un humano. Expresado de otro modo : si pudiésemos reemplazar su cuerpo enteramente (con excepción de su testa), por otro metálico o de sílice no habría gran diferencia al final, porque desde hace muchos años lo que va quedando del cuerpo de Hawking solo sirve para aprovisionar su cerebro de oxigeno y glúcidos. Entre otras deficiencias de Hawking está, el no poder hablar al natural. Hasta 1980, Hawking afectado por Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrofica (enfermedad de neuronas motoras), solia asistirse con enfermeras privadas por una o dos horas al dia. El científico que hablaba en forma casi inenteligible, dictaba sus escritos a una secretaria, dando seminarios ayudado por un interprete que repetia sus palabras en forma clara.

Cuando en 1985 contrajo una neumonía se vió en la necesidad de ser asistido por enfermeras las 24 horas, porque la traquetomia lo dejo sin habla. Por un tiempo solo deletreaba palabras, letra por letra elevando sus cejas cuando alguien señalaba alguna letra en una cartilla. Hasta que Walt Woltosz, le envió un programa (Equalizer/Sonido artificial creado por manipulación directa de corrientes eléctricas), que le permitió seleccionar palabras de una serie de menus graficados en la pantalla de un ordenador, presionando un switch con su mano, su cabeza o sus ojos. Si quería decir algo enviaba lo acumulado desde un ordenador de mesa a un Speech Synthesizer. David Mason (Cambridge Adaptive Communication), le construyó una pequeña computadora portatil conectada a un Speech Synthesizer adherida a su vez a su silla de ruedas. Con ello maneja 15 palabras por minuto, habla lo escrito, lo graba en un disco o lo imprime. Asi ha hado muchas conferencias, escrito varios libros y artículos cientificos. Parte del éxito de su Speech Synthesiser (Speech Plus), es la entonacion variada, clara y eficiente.

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