Monday, March 16, 2015

GERMAN FEMALE SCIENTISTS




ABOUT,  EXPERIMENTS.

From Der Spiegel

Mindset of the Nobel Prize in Medicine 1995: Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, regarding the success or failure of experiments, product of his thoughts about genetic research of fruit fly. I- The scientific and her group formed exclusively in German labs, eager to work with mutant flies because they wore all genes that controlled the development of the fly. No one had done before systematic attempts in this direction. No one knew how many genes were involved and if it was possible to identify them all. Carefully conducted preliminary tests and calculated possible results. This gave themsecurity, about what they would find. They developed the experiments with optimism, perseverance and courage. His persistence and sometimes arrogance, worked. II- The scientific learned that although half of the experiments fail we should always try them. III- The scientist must have psychological support and courage to take risks. The higher the risk, the greater the gain. Failed experiments are not failures; they are just failed attempts ... maybe the methodology did not work. If you wish not fail, it is never found anything new. If we fail it is just does that things not work that way. In practice even successful experiments cannot teach us much except that this is not the great road. Trying to get answers, we should remember that what we try to identify something not known, yet. If anyone thinks he has the answer before the experiment it does not lead to anything good because it is a biased thinking. It is wonderful to attempt results, without knowing so much about something. When results are known, many new things are understood. IV- The scientific advised not to publish failed experiments, because another researcher can make them work. If, however, the work is successful write and circulate it first among equals, providing them all possible data until it is accepted as true and verifiable. Many unimportant things are posted. It is not only to generate data, but identify valuable things, to understand and answer fundamental questions. To reach the stars, you have to crave something really important, new and risky.

ACERCA DE LOS EXPERIMENTOS.


Interesa conocer la forma de pensar de la Premio Nobel de Medicina 1995: Christiane  Nüsslein-Volhard, respecto a los éxitos o fracasos de los experimentos, producto de sus reflexiones en torno a las investigaciones genéticas de la mosca de la fruta. I-La  científica  y su grupo formados netamente en laboratorios alemanes, ansiaban  trabajar con moscas mutantes porque  ellas portaban todos los genes que controlaban el desarrollo de la mosca. Nadie había realizado antes intentos sistemáticos en ese sentido. Nadie sabía cuántos genes estaban involucrados y si era posible  identificarlos a todos. Cuidadosamente  realizaron test preliminares y  calcularon posibles resultados. Ello les  dio  seguridad, respecto a lo que iban  a encontrar. Desarrollaron los experimentos con optimismo, perseverancia y  coraje. Su persistencia y a veces arrogancia, funcionaron. II- Con ello, la científica aprendió que aunque la mitad de los experimentos fracasen  siempre debemos  intentarlos. III- El  científico debe tener soporte psicológico y  coraje para tomar riesgos. Cuanto mayor sea el riesgo, mayor la ganancia.  Los experimentos fracasados  no son fracasos,  solo son intentos fallidos…  quizás la metodología no funciono.   Si no se  desea fracasar,  jamás se  encontrara nada nuevo.  Si fallamos  es solo que ese camino no sirve. En la práctica aun los experimentos exitosos pueden no enseñarnos mucho, excepto que ese no es el gran  camino. Al intentar   obtener   respuestas,  es bueno recordar que lo que tratamos de identificar no se conoce aun.  Si alguien cree tener la respuesta antes del experimento eso no lleva a nada bueno porque es un pensamiento sesgado. Es maravilloso experimentar sin conocer resultados aun. Cuando se conocen los resultados, recién se entienden las  cosas.  IV- La científica  aconseja no publicar  experimentos fallidos, porque otro investigador puede hacer que  funcionen.  Si por el contrario, el trabajo es exitoso escríbalo y hágalo circular  primero entre pares, proporcionándoles todos los datos posibles, hasta que sea aceptado  como verdadero y verificable. Se publican muchas cosas no importantes.  No se trata de generar solo datos, sino  identificar cosas  valiosas, para comprender y responder preguntas fundamentales. Para alcanzar las estrellas, hay que ansiar algo realmente importante, nuevo y riesgoso. 

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