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Saturday, November 05, 2005

Black holes:not so black (Agujeros no tan negros).


In 1919, with occasion of the lecture of the General Theory of Relativity, A. Einstein, reached to foresee the existence of Blackholes (BH), on account of his frustrated efforts to identify appropiate correlations between visible universal power sources and observable space matter. As opposed to the power excess, it predicted that in some place of the space-time, must exist dark matter, with huge energetic sources. Later (1930), the Hindu S. Chandrasekhar, theoretical student of the stellar collapse, predicted that certain stars will collapse concentrating his full energia, in a single point (smaller BH). Although Eddington, his old english professor, refused to believe this, the granting of the Physics Nobel Prize, to Chandrasekhar in 1983, finished giving the reason to the Hindu. In 1970, R. Penrose and Stephen W. Hawkins (1992.History of the Time. Planeta-Agostini.Bs.As, Barcelona), defined a BH, like a set of events in the space-time, of which it was not possible to escape. Despite the theoretical advance, nobody has seen accurately until today, a BH. One does not know in detail the properties a BH. For that reason it interests the enthusiasm of an international set of astronomers: : Connected astronomers, to a Base line of Radiotelescopios (VLBA). Spokesmen of this association, maintain that the brilliance of stars devoured by a BH, now allows to describe the contour of the monster. From there, to know the structure and properties of a BH, will be a less difficult task. It provides additional aid to the astronomers (in its eagerness to qualify to a BH), the constant emissions of infrared and x-rays by the BHs, captured by means of radiotelescopes. Some scientifics of this association have already calculated the diameter of the BH, located in the center of our Milky Way. Knowledge that what falls to the interior of a BH, will disappear of our eyes, is not already the only criterion to describe a BH.
Why a BH is important? 1) According to Hawking, the singularity (the inner and central point of a BH, could be a hole of worm - front door to other universes-. It is argued that through a singularity or door of the space- time burst the big bang. However the singularity of the BH is of future time, not of past time like big bang. 2) the power use of the BHs. According to Hawkins a BH, as large as a baseball one, orbiting around the Earth will give enough energy to 10 great electrical power stations. Finally 3) to know the structure and properties the BHs, would suppose to recreate a new Physics. As we know, in a singularity all the possible dimensions are concentrated, nothing escapes to its. It is to say somebody -that could survive placed there, will live in no-tempo- by always. There is no there, arrow of the time, everything is united, collapsed.
Agujeros, no tan negros
En 1919, con ocasión de la exposición de la Teoria General de la Relatividad, A. Einstein, alcanzó a divisar la existencia de Agujeros Negros (AN), a efectos de sus frustrados esfuerzos por identificar correlaciones congruentes entre fuentes energéticas universales visibles y materia espacial observable. Frente al exceso energético, predijo que en algun lugar del espacio tiempo, deberia existir materia oscura, depositaria de fuentes energeticas incalculables. Posteriormente (1930), el hindú S. Chandrasekhar, estudioso teórico del colapso estelar, predijo que ciertas estrellas colapsarian concentrando su energia total, en un solo punto (AN, pequeñisimo). Aunque Eddington, su antiguo profesor británico, rehusó creer esto, el otorgamiento del Premio Nobel de Fisica, a: http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1983/chandrasekhar-autobio.html, Chandrasekhar en 1983, acabó por darle la razón al hindú. En 1970, R. Penrose y http://www.hawking.org.uk/about/aindex.html, Stephen W. Hawkins (1992.Historia del Tiempo.Planeta-Agostini.Bs.As,Barcelona), defininieron a un AN, como un conjunto de sucesos en el espacio-tiempo, del que no era posible escapar. No obstante el avance teórico, nadie ha visto con precisión hasta hoy, un AN. No se conoce en detalle las propiedades de un AN. Por eso interesa el entusiasmo de un conjunto internacional de astrónomos : http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/03/science/space/03hole.html : Astrónomos conectados -: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VLBA, a una Linea de base de Radiotelescopios (VLBA). Voceros de esta agremiación, sostienen que el resplandor de las estrellas engullidas por un AN, permiten ahora divisar el contorno del monstruo. A partir de alli, conocer la estructura y propiedades de un AN, será una tarea menos difícil. Proporciona ayuda adicional a los astrónomos (en su afán de cualificar a un AN), la emisión energética constante de los ANs (rayos X, e infrarrojos), captados en la Tierra por radiotelescopios. enlazados. Algunos cientificos de esta agremiación han yá calculado el diámetro del AN, localizado en el centro de nuestra Via Lactea. Saber que lo que cae al interior de un AN, desaparecerá de nuestra vista, no es yá el único criterio para tipificar un AN.

Porque es importante un AN?. : 1) Según Hawking, la singularidad (el punto interior y central de un AN, podria ser el el agujero de gusano -puerta de entrada- a otros universos. Se arguye que a través de una singularidad o puerta del espacio tiempo irrumpió el big bang. Empero la singularidad del AN es de tiempo futuro, no de tiempo pasado como el big bang. 2) el empleo energético de los ANs. Según Hawkins un AN, del tamaño de un pelotita de béisbol, orbitando alrededor de la Tierra proporcionaria energia a 10 grandes centrales eléctricas. Por último 3) conocer la estructura y propiedades de los ANs, supondria recrear una nueva Fisica. Como sabemos, en una singularidad están concentradas todas las dimensiones posibles, nada escapa a ella. Es decir alguien -que pudiese sobrevivir- colocado alli, viviria en atemporalidad, por siempre. No hay alli, flecha del tiempo, todo está unido, colapsado.

4 Comments:

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