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Monday, October 24, 2005

The giant human eye (El gigantesco ojo humano).


When in 1609, Galileo listened to speak of tubular instruments that increased the size of the objects, absorbed the idea constructing in 24 hours, a improved telescope, good and simple, based exclusively on optical principles. Its telescope consisted of two lenses:una convex to enlarge (by refracción of luminous rays), the image and other, biconcave to concentrate them in the human eye. With this instrument, Galileo studied the lunar craters, 4 Jupiter satellites, the sunspots and the phases of Venus, that would end up convincing him that the Sun was the center of our Solar System. The present telescopes have maximized their power and, incorporated principles of other disciplines: the electronics, within them. From the telescope of Galileo of hardly 20 increases, to the gigantic :Hubble (1990), weight:11.000 kg, diameter = 4.2 mts, length = 11,4 mts, that allowed to determine the speed of the galaxies, the expansion of the universe and the presence of black holes in the center of the galaxies and, lately, to the Spitzer (2003), an infrared telescope, cooled cryogenically, of hardly:50 kilos of weight, 0,85 cm of diameter, 2 beryllium mirrors and, a resolution of visibility of 3 microns. Capable to stay in very cold means, the Spitzer prints photos orbiting around the Sun. This compressed telescope, that involves principles of electronics, physics and optics, allows to observe the dark matter, the star formation and death and others. There is no doubt, the telescope is a formidable extended eye of the man. Associate to the improvement of the visual telescopes, exists other telescopes, that instead of catching images, catch radio waveses, emitted by extraterrestrial power plants (Program SETI). They are ordered to track extraterrestrial life. On the basis of metaanálisis of data collected by the two referred sources, Carl Sagan: , managed to establish 3 parameters (evidences), of extraterrestrial organic life:1) chlorophyll presence surrounding a planet 2) methane presence in planetary atmosphere and 3) abundance of atmospheric molecular oxygen.
El gigantesco ojo humano
Cuando en 1609, Galileo escuchó hablar de instrumentos tubulares que aumentaban el tamaño de los objetos, absorbió la idea construyendo en 24 horas, un telescopio mejorado, http://omega.ilce.edu.mx:3000/sites/ciencia/volumen2/ciencia3/057/htm/sec_5.htm, simple y eficáz, basado exclusivamente en principios ópticos. Su telescopio constaba de dos lentes :una convexa para agrandar (por refracción de los rayos luminosos), la imagen y otra, bicóncava para concentrarlos en el ojo humano. Con este instrumento Galileo, estudió los cráteres lunares, 4 satélites de Júpiter, las manchas solares y las fases de Venus, que acabarían convenciéndolo de que el Sol era el centro de nuestro sistema solar. Los telescopios actuales han maximizado su potencia e, incorporado principios de otras disciplinas : la electrónica, dentro de ellas. Del telescopio de Galileo de apenas 20 aumentos, se pasó al orbitante terrestre y gigantesco http://hubble.nasa.gov/index.php :Hubble (1990), peso:11,000 kg, diámetro= 4,2 mts, largo= 11,4 mts, que permitió determinar la velocidad de las galaxias, la expansión del universo y la presencia de agujeros negros en el centro de las galaxias y, últimamente, al Spitzer (2003), un telescopio infrarrojo, enfriado criogénicamente, de apenas :50 kilos de peso, 0,85 cm de diámetro, 2 espejos de berilio y, una resolución de visibilidad de 3 micras. Capáz de mantenerse en medios muy fríos, el Spitzer imprime fotos orbitando alrededor del Sol. Este telescopio comprimido, que involucra principios de electrónica, física y óptica, permite observar la materia oscura, la formación y muerte de estrellas y otros. No hay duda, el telescopio es un formidable ojo ampliado del hombre. Adjunto al perfeccionamiento de los telescopios visuales, existen otros telescopios, que en lugar de captar imágenes, captan ondas de radio, emitidas por fuentes de energía extraterrestre (Programa SETI: http://history.nasa.gov/seti.html). Son encargados de rastrear vida extraterrestre. En base a metaanálisis de datos obtenidos por las dos fuentes referidas, Carl Sagan:http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan, logró establecer 3 parámetros (evidencias), identificatorias de vida orgánica extraterrestre:1) presencia de clorofila circundando un planeta 2) presencia de metano en la atmósfera planetaria y 3) abundancia de oxígeno molecular atmosférico.

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