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Wednesday, August 30, 2006

3 commented articles from PNAS, 1 interesting interview from NYTimes.

Peruvian microfossils insects. Der Spiegel courtesy.


An investigation team led by the French paleontologist Pierre Olivier Antoine (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), has discovered in the riversides of the river Amazons (Iquitos-Peru), a group of vegetable (pollen, algae) and animal (arachnids of 6 feet, earth lice, spores of mushrooms, biting parasites) all microfossils, contents in yellow amber. A preliminary advance, locates the remains in Miocen (22 million- 5 m years ago), demonstrating that for these times the amazon ecosystems were rich and varied. In peruvian prehispanic times, a serious problem was the one constituted by anemias to scale, identified by certain histopatologic clues of the cranial diploe. Pedro Weiss a Peruvian pathologist postulates to benign (P.malariae, P.vivax) malaria, like one of his main causes. To demonstrate his theory Weiss, tried to find microfossils of species of Plasmodia without success. Perhaps these studies offer light in this respect.

PNAS, has just published, online (open access), a complete article of: A.Ogura /R.Yanagimachi/N.Ogonuki, et al : "Spermatozoa and spermatids retrieved from frozen reproductive organs or frozen whole bodies of male mice dog produces normal offspring", in relation to the offspring of viable descendant, after fertilizing by means of microinsemination, current, viable mature oocites with sperms and spermatids (of mice), maintained during 15 years, to temperatures of -20 C (without cryoprotectors), in simple solutions (salt) cryopreservants. We have commented this article 9 days ago, being the first (we believe, the only ones) in outlining via online, a fundamental question:"Spermatozoons: alive or dead "? and that the woolly ancients mammoths would be - sooner or later - returned to the life using sperm of males mammoths maintained in permafrost. Surprisingly in the discussion (cerebral space of any article), they give answer -not with all clarity - to our observations. In our article, we gave our own point of view. It seems that they read our observations, although they didn't mention us.

Another important article of PNAS (online, open access), of responsibility of E. Albuquerque, E. Pereira, Y. Aracava et al., is the related with the sure preventive and effective treatment against the morbid sharp effects - lethal some times- caused by certain neural toxics (organphosphorus (OP), insecticides: parathion and gases:sarin, soman, tabun) that affect to the nervous central system: SNC (brain and related) and peripheral SNC (nerves), conditioned by the early application of a reversible new inhibitor of the acetilcolinesterasa enzyme (AChe): the galantamina. The paraoxon (metabolite of the parathion) and other gases, when inhibiting AChe irreversibly, suppress neural normal functions, conditioning other some times, lethal. Although in Peru and the rest of the world this affection is treated with atropine, oximas and anticonvulsivants, most of having affected and scientists say that this therapeutic outline, is insufficient. Agriculture peruvian workers -many not warned and unprotected- are affected by these toxics (insecticides). Also, the voluntary drinking a of these insecticides, already climbs like one of the important causes of suicide, in Peru. Of another side, it is known that in certain wars of Middle East and in certain terrorist (Japan, 1995) attacks, these neurotoxics were used, with catastrophic results. The galantamina, has demonstrated high effectiveness in laboratory guinea pigs, lacking alone their application to human volunteers, to validate it.

In 2 previous articles, of our responsibility we postulate that any industrial medicine (antihypertensive, antirrheumatic, etc), is effective alone in a certain percentage of patients. That's to say, some of then are cured, others don't feel any effect and an other group, not alone it didn't improve, but rather they will suffer of pharmacological side-effects. For this reason, the future of therapeutic pharmacology, should go toward the creation of individual, elaborated medications - almost handmade - to the measure of each individual's genetic constitution. Arduous task, already begun, for a french-American visionary, the pharmacologist : Mary V. Relling. To the interested ones, I suggest the reading of this illustrative interview.

Tags : /microfossils, amber/frozen spermatozoa, cryopreservation, cryoprotection,woolly mammoth,organphosphorus,neurotoxics,galantamine,insecticides/tailor made medication.
3 articulos comentados del PNAS. Una, interesante entrevista en el NYTimes.

Un equipo de investigacion liderado por el paleontologo frances Pierre Olivier Antoine (Centre Nacional de la Recherche Scientifique), ha descubierto en las riberas del rio Amazonas : Iquitos-Peru, un conjunto de microfosiles vegetales (polen, algas) y animales (aracnidos de 6 pies, piojos de tierra, esporas de hongos, parasitos mordedores), contenidos en ambar amarillo. Un avance preliminar, situa los restos el Mioceno (22 m – 5 millones de años), demostrando que por estas epocas los ecosistemas amazonicos eran ricos y variados. En epocas prehispanicas peruanas, un problema serio fue el constituido por anemias a escala, solventadas por ciertas caracteristicas histopatologicas del diploe craneal. Pedro Weiss, patologo peruano postulo a la malaria benigna (P.malariae, P.vivax), como una de sus causas principales. Para demostrar su teoria, Weiss, tenia que mostrar microfosiles de especies de Plasmodia. No pudo hacerlo. Tal vez estos estudios brinden luz al respecto.

El PNAS, acaba de publicar, via online (open access), el articulo completo de : A.Ogura/R.Yanagimachi/N.Ogonuki, et al:Spermatozoa and spermatids retrieved from frozen reproductive organs or frozen whole bodies of male mice can produce normal offspring”, en relacion a la gesta de descendencia viable, tras fertilizar mediante microinseminacion, oocitos actuales, viables maduros con espermatozoides y espermatides (de ratones), mantenidos durante 15 años, a temperaturas de -20C (sin crioprotectores), en soluciones criopreservantes simples (sal). Comentamos este articulo hace 9 dias, siendo los primeros (creemos,los unicos), en plantear via online, una pregunta fundamental : ¿espermatozoides:estan vivos o muertos? y que los mamuts lanudos serian -tarde o temprano- vueltos a la vida utilizando esperma de machos mantenidos en permafrost. Curiosamente en la discusión (la parte mas cerebral de cualquier articulo), dan respuesta –aunque no con toda claridad- a estas observaciones nuestras (a las que nosotros damos respuesta alternas, en nuestro articulo). Parece que leyeron nuestras observaciones, aunque no nos mencionaron.

Otro articulo importante del PNAS (online, open access), de autoria de E.Albuquerque, E. Pereira, Y.Aracava et al, es el relacionado con la segura accion preventiva y de tratamiento contra los efectos morbidos agudos -muchas veces mortales- ocasionados por ciertos toxicos (insecticidas organofosforados : parathion y gases:sarin, soman, tabun), que afectan al sistema nervioso central :SNC (cerebro y relacionados) y SNC periferico (nervios), condicionados por la aplicación temprana de un nuevo inhibidor reversible de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa (AChe) :la galantamina El paraoxon (metabolito del parathion) y varios gases, al inhibir irreversiblemente a la AChe, suprimen funciones neurales normales, condicionando otras, muchas veces letales. Aunque en el Peru y el resto del mundo se trata esta afección con atropina, oximas y anticonvulsivantes, la mayoria de afectados y cientificos opinan que este esquema terapeutico, es insuficiente. En labores de agricultura muchos peruanos no avisados y desprotegidos son afectados por estos toxicos ( insecticidas). Asimismo, la ingesta voluntaria de estos insecticidas, escala ya como una de las causas importantes de suicidio, en el Peru. De otro lado, se sabe que en ciertas guerras del medio oriente y en ciertos atentados terroristas (Japon, 1990), se emplearon estos neurotoxicos, con resultados catastroficos. La galantamina, ha demostrado alta eficacia en ratones de laboratorio, faltando solo su aplicacion a voluntarios humanos, para validarla.

En 2 articulos previos, de nuestra autoria postulamos que la ingesta de cualquier fármaco (antihipertensivo, andiarreico, etc), es eficaz solo en un cierto porcentaje de pacientes. Es decir, unos se curaran, otros no sentiran ningun efecto y un ultimo grupo, no solo no mejorara, sino que padecera de efectos farmacologicos indeseables. Por esta razon, el futuro de la farmacología terapeutica, debe dirigirse hacia la creación de medicamentos individuales, elaborados -casi artesanalmente- a la medida de la constitución genetica de cada individuo. Ardua tarea, iniciada ya, por una visionaria farmacologa franco-americana Mary V. Relling. A los interesados, les sugiero la lectura de esta iluminadora entrevista.

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