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Monday, August 21, 2006

Novelty hypothesis:Mars and brain of dolphins.



MARS

As you know at present, 3 spatial probes orbit Mars: 2 of the NASA (Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey) and 1 of the European Spatial Agency –ESA- (Mars Express). The last probe has sent many pictures taken by means of a spectrometer (Omega), of visible and infrared light, coming to generate a map of the mineral composition of the Martian surface with a 90% of cover. With these data, the French astrophysic Jean-Pierre Bibring, (Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay-France), has advanced the existence of 3 geologic martian eras : I) Phyllocian (0-1 billon of years), with predominance of hydrated clay (phyllosilicates, that to be formed they needed alkaline water). Bibring, suggests that in Marwth vallis, where these silicatos abound must be sought to future, biofossils. II) Thejikian (1-1, 5 b of years), characterized by an abrupt change of climate, great volcanic activity, generation of abundant sulfurs acids that in contact with water, generated sulphates and III) Siderikan (3500 b of years, to the date), lacking of water, with abundant not hydrous ferric oxid, that had given Mars their present superficial red color. On the other side, Phil Christensen of the Arizona State University, after examining 200 photos (taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (Themis), camera of visible and infrared light, sent by the American probe Mars Odyssey, has discovered in the south pole of Mars: multiples vertical jets of dust and sand, being hypothesized they are generated for gas of dioxide of carbon ejected to high pressure. The jets had certain resemblance with earth geisers, with the difference that these last are always generated for internal geotermic energy that eject water and steam, in the meantime the martian geisers (60 m of height), like the same as the geisers of Triton (Moon of Neptune. Jets of liquidate Nitrogen : 8 km of height), were generated by the break of superficial sheets of ice, by the sunlight, freeing gases to high pressure.

MARTE:

Como ustedes saben actualmente, 3 sondas espaciales orbitan Marte : 2 de la NASA (Mars Global Surveyor y Mars Odyssey) y 1 de la Agencia Espacial Europea –ESA- (Mars Express). Esta ultima, mediante un espectrómetro (Omega), de luz visible e infrarroja, ha tomado muchisimas fotos, llegando a generar un mapa de la composición mineral de la superficie marciana con un 90 % de cobertura. Con estos datos, el astrofisico frances Jean-Pierre Bibring, (Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay), ha postulado la existencia de 3 eras geologicas marcianas: I) Era Phyllocian (0-1 billon de años), con predominio de arcilla hidratada (phyllosilicatos, que para formarse necesitaron agua alcalina). Bibring, sugiere que en Marwth vallis, donde abundan estos silicatos deberian buscarse a futuro, biofosiles. 2) Era Thejikian (1-1,5 b de años), caracterizada por un abrupto cambio de clima, gran actividad volcanica, generacion de abundantes sulfuros acidos que en contacto con el agua, generaron sulfatos y 3) Era Siderikan (3500 b de años, a la fecha), carente de agua, con abundante oxido ferrico no hidratado, que le habria dado su actual color rojo superficial. Por su lado Phil Christensen de la Universidad publica de Arizona, tras examinar 200 fotos (tomadas por la Thermal Emisión Imaging System (Themis), camara de luz visible e infrarroja, portada por la sonda americana Mars Odyssey, ha descubierto en el polo sur de Marte: multiples ejecciones verticales de polvo y arena, hipotetizandose sean generadas por gas de dioxido de carbono ejectado a alta presion. Las ejecciones tendrian cierta semejanza con geisers terraqueos, con la diferencia de que estos ultimos siempre son generados por energia geotermica interna que ejecta agua y vapor, en tanto los geisers marcianos (60 m de altura), al igual que los geisers de Triton (Luna de Neptuno. Ejecciones de N liquido hasta a 8 km de altura), serian generados por la rotura de capas de hielo superficial, por la luz solar, liberando gases a alta presion.

DOLPHINS

The swedish neuroetholog Paul Manger (School of Anatomy. Fac. Of Health Sc. University Witwatersrand Johannesburg. Republic of South Africa), maintains that dolphins are not intelligent and that large brains are not necessarily synonymous of greater intelligence. Manger -expert in dolphins- after studying histologically, the brain of various of them (with brains of discreetly upper volume as ours), has notified that these showed a considerable number of glial cells (cells of backup of neurons, determinants of the number of neuronal synapse and generators of metabolic heat) and few neuronal cells (structural cells of intelligence, that receive, process and transmit information). In the humans (1000-5000 billions glials cells), the contrary thing occurs: has more neurons (100 b of neurons and 60-240 trillions of neuronal synapse). While in our case the cerebral size was forced by the increment of the number of neurons, by needs of an adequate storage and management of the growing information, in the case of dolphins –according to Manger- the number of glial cells was increased (…" An examination of cetacean brain structure with a novel hypothesis correlating thermogénesis to the evolution of to big brain "…Biological Reviews. Cambridge University Press. 2006. I take 81.Vol. , Pp: 293-338), in order to maintain a permanent brain thermogenesis in a mammal that usually lives in cool water yielding of continuous heat to the water. In some moment the cool water exercised a high selective pressure determining large brains. With regard to the supposed intelligent conduct (almost human), of dolphins, Manger said that this is nonexistent. And in relationship to the supposed extraordinary abilities of dolphins, he said that they do not depend so much of them, but of the excellence of the coaches, that in these cases work plans of training based on extensive rewards.

DELFINES

El neuroetologo sueco Paul Manger (School of Anatomy. Fac. Of Health Sc. University Witwatersrand-Johannesburg. Republic of South Africa), sostiene que los delfines no son inteligentes y que los cerebros grandes no son necesariamente sinnimos de mayor inteligencia. Manger -experto en delfines- tras estudiar histológicamente, el cerebro de varios de ellos (con cerebros de tamaño discretamente superiores al nuestro), ha notificado que estos cuentan con un numero considerable de celulas gliales (cel. de soporte del sistema nervioso, determinantes del numero de sinapsis neuronales y generadores de calor metabolico) y pocas celulas neuronales (cel. estructurales de la inteligencia, que reciben, procesan y trasmiten información). En los humanos (1000-5000 billones de celulas gliales), ocurre lo contrario: se dispone de mas neuronas (100 b de neuronas y 60-240 trillones de sinapsis neuronales). Mientras que en nuestro caso el tamaño cerebral fue forzado por el incremento del numero de neuronas, por necesidades de un adecuado almacenamiento y manejo de la creciente información, en el caso de los delfines –según Manger- el numero de celulas gliales se incremento (…”An examination of cetacean brain structure with a novel hipótesis correlating termogénesis to the evolution of a big brain “Biological Reviews. Cambridge University Press. 2006. Tomo 81.Vol. ,pp: 293-338), a fin de mantener una termogénesis cerebral permanente en un mamífero que usualmente vive en aguas frias, cediendo de continuo calor al agua. En algun momento las aguas frias ejerciendo una alta presion selectiva determinaron cerebros grandes. Con respecto a la supuesta conducta inteligente (casi humana), de los delfines Manger, arguye que esta es inexistente. Y que las supuestas habilidades extraordinarias de los delfines, no dependen tanto de ellos, sino de la excelencia de los entrenadores, que en estos casos trabajan esquemas de entrenamiento basados en amplias recompensas.

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