Friday, June 19, 2009

TREPHINATIONS TO IMPROVE COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE






The thickness of the brown arrows indicate the strength of the CSF movements, and shows that trepanation leads to increased movement of CSF around the brain and to the sub-arachnoid spaces (improving nutrient delivery and waste removal), and to less movement of CSF from the brain to the spinal column. Picture, taken from Beckley Foundation.


Certain german neurologist sustained years ago, that if we extirpate the human cranial calvaria, the brain would expand, grace to an increment of the thickness of its cortex. A radical idea, revitalized by the russian Yuri Moskalenko who after to publish in Nature (1960): "Variation in blood volume and oxygen availability in the human brain", begins to sustain that 40 year old (when most people begin to lose their cognitive function) and affected of Alzheimer disease, could be treated with cranial trepinathions that would act by way of diminisher intracranial pressure, valves. For it Moskalenko studied 15 trephinated people due to head injuries, identifying in them a cranial compliance: CC (measure of brain vascular system elasticity), 20 % higher than the average and that a trephination of 4 cm2, increased brain blood flow between 8 and 10%. According to Moskalenko as we age, diminishes the brain blood flow due to loss of cranial elasticity, for normal processes of ossification, what impacts on single individual and on all society.


Above-mentioned ideas allowed Moskalenko to develop a method (MM), based on the Laws of Poiseuille (movements of liquids through vessels and compartments in closed spaces), valuing interrelations among :blood brain, spinal fluid, skull and cerebral tissue, concluding that the grade of cranial elasticity, is the primary determinant of the cerebral circulation. Additional analysis has allowed Moskalenko to discover that brain atrophy that happens after 50-60 years, stabilizes or improves the CC. Finally, all the above-mentioned has allowed Moskalenko to suggest 3 types of therapies to improve CC: I) To carry out vigorous exercises of breathing similar to those practiced in Yoga II) Osteopathic manual manipulation of the skull, favoring brain blood flow, as long as cranial plates are not fused. Moving a fraction is enough to activate the circulation and III) To carry out simple craniotomies or trephinations with the purpose of increasing the index of cranial elasticity and of blood supply among 8-10%.


TREPANACION CRANEANA PARA MEJORAR NUESTRA PERFORMANCE COGNITIVA


Arguía años atrás, un neurólogo alemán que si extirpáramos la calota craneal humana, el cerebro se expandiría, merced a un incremento del espesor de la corteza. Una idea radical, revitalizada por el ruso Yuri Moskalenko, quien trás publicar en Nature (1960): "Variation in blood volume and oxygen availability in the human brain", empieza a sostener que personas mayores de 40 años (que empiezan a perder su función cognitiva) y afectos de Alzheimer, pueden ser tratados con trepanaciones craneanas, que actuarían a modo de válvulas liberadoras de presión intracraneal. Para ello Moskalenko estudió 15 personas trepanadas por traumatismos craneanos, identificando un cranial compliance :CC (medida de la elasticidad del sistema vascular cerebral), 20 % más alto que el promedio y que una trepanación de 4 cm2, incrementaba el flujo cerebral entre un 8 y 10 %. Para Moskalenko a medida que envejecemos, disminuye el flujo sanguíneo cerebral por pérdida de la elasticidad craneal, por procesos normales de osificación, lo que impacta sobre el funcionamiento mental individual y sobre la sociedad como un todo.


Lo anterior le permitió a Moskalenko desarrollar un método (MM), basado en las Leyes de Poiseuille (movimientos de liquidos por vasos y compartimientos en espacios cerrados), valuando interrelaciones entre LCR-sangre cerebral, cráneo, tejido cerebral, concluyendo que el grado de elasticidad craneal, es el determinante primario de la circulación cerebral. Análisis adicionales le han permitido a Moskalenko descubrir que la atrofia cerebral que ocurre después de los 50-60, estabiliza o mejora el CC. Finalmente, todo lo anterior le ha permitido a Moskalenko sugerir 3 tipos de terapias para mejorar el CC: I) Realizar ejercicios vigorosos de respiración semejantes a los practicados en el Yoga II) Manipulación manual osteopática del cráneo, favorecedor del flujo sanguíneo, en tanto las placas craneales al no estar fusionadas se mueven -una fracción- suficiente para activar la circulación y III) realizar craneotomías simples o trepanaciones con el fin de incrementar el índice de elasticidad craneal y de suministro sanguíneo, entre un 8-10%.

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