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Sunday, June 26, 2011



Having been created the conditions for life on Earth appeared the first unicellular organisms. It is assumed that about 1300 million years were generated about 20 attempts -most failed- to generate multicellularity. However, the first fossil record of multicellular animals dated from the Precambrian (700 million years). Now, through a simple experiment William Ratcliff (University of Minnesota/St Paul/Oklahoma), has generated a multicellular organism from a single-celled yeast. For this, scientists grown unicellular fungi in liquid medium, re-cultivating the supernatants where unicellular fungi remained joined together. 60 days (350 generations) were necessary to form "snowflakes", genetically identical cells connected to each other after each division. The funny thing is that each formed cluster acts as a multicellular organism in which each cell works for the good of all, evolving the cluster as a unit. Some skeptics argue that ancestors of this fungus were multicellular millions of years ago and this fungi have retained the evolutionary mechanisms of cell adhesion and programmed cell death.


Creadas las condiciones para albergar vida en la Tierra aparecieron los organismos unicelulares. Se presume que hace unos 1300 millones de años se generaron unos 20 intentos -la mayoría frustros- para generar multicelularidad. No obstante, los primeros registros fosiles de animales multicelulares datan del Precámbrico (700 millones de años). Ahora, mediante un sencillo experimento William Ratcliff (University of Minnesota/St Paul/Oklahoma), ha generado un organismo multicelular a partir de un hongo unicelular, Para ello, los científicos hicieron crecer hongos unicelulares en medio liquido, re-cultivando los sobrenadantes superiores donde los hongos unicelulares se mantenían unidos entre si. 60 dias (350 generaciones), fueron necesarias para formar conglomerados ("snowflake"), celulares genéticamente idénticos conectados entre si despues de cada división. Lo curioso es que cada conglomerado funciona como un organismo multicelular en el que mediante divisiones del trabajo cada celula trabaja en bien del conjunto, evolucionando como una unidad. Algunos escépticos arguyen que los antecesores de este hongo fueron multicelulares hace millones de años y que los hongos actuales han retenido los mecanismos evolutivos de adhesión celular y muerte celular programada.



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