Sunday, October 30, 2011

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS of YOGURT

In the latest issue of Science Translational Medicine was published an article that will alter the way to treat bacterial infections. In most hospitals pathogenic infections are fought with bactericidal or bacteriostatic antibiotics. Following the use of the former, the germs mutate creating antibiotic resistance (multidrug-resistence tuberculosis, etc.) with potential to develop global pandemics. The new approach to treat bacterial infections is based on living with germs, rather than eliminate them entirely. From this point of view, infections are caused by changes in the biota of different bacterial ecosystems within or outside the human body. Human bodies carry trillions of bacteria in arranged and interrelated microbiotas maintaining the health or predisposing to disease as appropriate.

An alteration of the intestinal ecosystem can cause persistent diarrhea, chronic inflammation, and so on. The intake of fresh yogurt or fermented milk for mice and human twins containing non-pathogenic germs (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus, etc.) is able to restore the balance of intestinal bacterial flora of the host, allowing better absorption of carbohydrates, enhance immunity, suppress the growth of pathogenic flora, etc. Although in this experiment no significant changes in the composition of bacterial species or genes encoding enzymes, the RNA sequencing analysis (RNA-Seq) of fecal samples showed significant changes in the expression of enzymes of the microbiome, affecting numerous metabolic pathways especially those involved in carbohydrate metabolism, xilooligosacarides catabplism, glycans widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and other trace elements. The human fecal metatranscriptome showed significant changes including those related to the metabolism of vegetable polysaccharides.

EFECTOS BENEFICOS DEL YOGURT

En el ultimo numero de Science Translational Medicine se publico un articulo que va alterar el modo de tratar las infecciones bacterianas. En la mayoría de establecimientos hospitalarios las infecciones patógenas son combatidas con antibióticos bactericidas o bacteriostaticos. Tras el empleo de los primeros, los germenes mutan generando resistencias a antibióticos (tuberculosis multidrogresistencia,etc), con potencial para generar pandemias mundiales. El nuevo enfoque de tratamiento de las infecciones bacterianas se basa en convivir con los germenes, mas que eliminarlos totalmente. Desde este punto de vista, las infecciones se producen por cambios en las biotas de distintos ecosistemas bacterianos al interior o exterior del cuerpo humano. Los humanos portamos en nuestro cuerpo trillones de bacterias dispuestas en en microbiotas interrelacionadas manteniendo la salud o predisponiendo a la enfermedad según sea el caso.

Una alteración del ecosistema intestinal puede provocar diarreas persistentes, inflamaciones crónicas, etc. La ingesta de yogurt fresco o leche fermentada por ratones y gemelos humanos conteniendo germenes no patógenos (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, cepas de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus,etc). Es capaz de restablecen el equilibrio de la flora bacteriana intestinal del hospedero, permitir una mejor absorción de carbohidratos, mejorar la inmunidad, reprimir el crecimiento de la flora patógena, etc. Aunque en el experimento de no hubo cambios significativos en la composicion de las especies bacterianas o en los genes codificadores de enzimas, el analisis de secuenciación del RNA (RNA-Seq), de muestras fecales mostro cambios significativos en la expresion de las enzimas del microbioma, comprometiendo numerosas vias metabolicas especialmente las implicadas en el metabolismo de los carbohidratos, catabolismo de xilooligosacaridos, glicanos ampliamente distribuidos en frutas, vegetables y otros oligoelementos. El metatranscriptoma fecal humano mostro cambios significativos incluyendo los relacionados al metabolismo de polisacáridos vegetales.

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