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Tuesday, October 08, 2013

Nobelprize of medicine 2013

NOBEL PRIZE FOR MEDICINE, 2013 The Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, was awarded the 07.10.2013, to 2 Americans : James E. Rothman (Yale University/Department of Cell Biology) and Randy W. Schekman (University of California/Department of Molecular and Cell biology) and to the German Thomas C. Südhof (Molecular and Cellular Physiology/Stanford University), due to discovery of molecular regulatory principles of intra-extracellular release and trafficking of human mini-vesicles, containing hormones, cytokines, neurotransmitters, enzymes, etc, to the right place and at the right time, essential for cell function and survival. Also, to show that abnormalities of this system determine neural disease, diabetes, immune disorders and so on. . Interestingly, Rothman telephone interviews ("major lessons in biochemistry, cell biology and molecular medicine showed that when proteins operate at sub-cellular level behave as mechanical machinery... when you get to the sort of level of the nanoscale, you find that these objects start behaving as if they were mechanical") and Schekman ("to appreciate how proteins... to be exported from cells are assembled, in a kind of assembly line process inside the cell"), discovered purely mechanical visions, logical-human-rational patterns. We would then be scheduled biorobots although the final product (human beings), has emergent properties (with free will oriented to live and reprodtion), foreseeing, that improving our genetic, physical and cognitive properties will generate more emergent properties and that the greater complexity of an organism, the greater need for accurate intra-corporeal and environmental extracorporeal communication mechanisms. If we wanted to better understand Earth's climate changes, we would have to be interconnected via satellite simultaneously to climatic changes of all the planets in our solar system . Schekman, studied the genes that regulate proteins that transport vesicles of the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Comparing normal vesicle traffic with altered traffic of genetically mutated fungal cells, he identified 3 sets (23 genes ) that control the intra- cellular transport of vesicles. Rothman, discovered that a complex of proteins allows the fusion of vesicles at specific sites of cell membrane, ensuring precise cargo release at the correct destination. Vesicle proteins bind to specific complementary proteins in the membrane, ensuring precise locations mergers. A transport system very old, although with the same general principles present in humans and fungi. Südhof discovered the mechanism (influx of calcium ions : Ca2 +, that promotes neurotransmitter release allowing the identification of key regulatory components, making vesicles (containing insulin, for example), to release its contents with high temporal precision in response to specific stimuli. PREMIO NOBEL DE MEDICINA, 2013 El Premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiologia, fue concedido el 07.10.2013, a 2 americanos : James E. Rothman (Yale University/ Department of Cell Biology) y Randy W. Schekman (U. of California/Department of Molecular and Cell biology) y al alemán Thomas C. Südhof (Molecular and Cellular Physiology/Stanford University), por descubrir los principios moleculares regulatorios de la liberación intra-extracelular y trafico de mini-vesiculas humanas, conteniendo hormonas, citoquinas, neurotrasmisores, enzimas,etc, al lugar correcto y en el tiempo preciso, esencial para el funcionamiento y supervivencia celular y por mostrar que las anomalías de este sistema condicionan enfermedades nerviosas, diabetes, desordenes inmunológicos. Curiosamente, las entrevistas telefonicas a Rothman (“major lessons in biochemistry, biology and molecular medicine when proteins operate at the sub-cellular level they behave as mechanical machinery…when you get to the sort of level of the nanoscale, you find that these objects start behaving as if they were mechanical”) y Schekman (“to appreciate how proteins…to be exported from cells are assembled, in a kind of assembly line process inside the cell”), descubren visiones puramente mecánicas, siguiendo pautas lógico-racionales humanas. Seriamos entonces, biorobots programados aunque el producto final (ser humano), tenga propiedades emergentes (con libre albedrio orientado a vivir y reproducirse), avizorándose que la mejora de nuestras propiedades genéticas, físicas y cognitivas generara mas propiedades emergentes y que a mayor complejidad de un organismo, mayor necesidad de precisos mecanismos de comunicación intra-extracorpóreos y ambientales. Si quisiéramos comprender mejor los cambios climaticos de la Tierra, tendriamos que estar interconectados simultáneamente via satelital, a los cambios climaticos de todos los planetas de nuestro sistema solar. Schekman, estudio los genes reguladores de proteínas transportadoras de vesículas del hongo Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Comparando el trafico de vesículas normales, con el trafico alterado en células de hongos genéticamente mutadas, identifico 3 sets (23 genes), que controlan el transporte intra-extracelular de vesículas. Rothman, descubrio que un complejo de proteinas permite la fusion de vesiculas en sitios especificos de la membrana celular, asegurando la liberación precisa de la carga, en el destino correcto. Las proteínas vesiculares se unen a proteínas complementarias especificas en la membrana, asegurando fusiones en lugares precisos. Un sistema de transporte muy antiguo, aunque con los mismos principios generales presentes en humanos y hongos. Südhof, descubrió el mecanismo (influjo de iones de calcio : Ca2+, promotores de la liberación de neurotransmisores permitiendo la identificación de componentes reguladores clave, logrando que vesiculas (conteniendo insulina por ejemplo), liberen su contenido con gran precisión temporal, en respuesta a estimulos especificos.

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