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Saturday, February 25, 2006

doping an new adaptative human species.

Some peruvian students question me for defend as normal the values of hemoglobin (Hb), established by the World Haematology Association (WHA) : men :14-18gr /dl and women: 12-16 gr/dl. Others, put forward that Peru –according to field studies carried out to national scale- has its own normal values of Hb- something lower than the of the WHA-. Although collected in developed countries, always I defend the values of the WHA, that in the meantime correspond to healthy individuals of great expectation of life. I add, that if I detect a large group of healthy individuals that carried: 20 - 22 gr/dl of Hb -without doubt- I would defend these as the new normal values of Hb. What really imports here, are not the values, but the state of favorable health that show the persons. Usually I am requestioned with arguments that indicate that to that level, will appear clots and thrombus. This, in part is certain; as it have been established in certain studies with regard to the slowing of the blood flow, to the extent that they enlarge the levels of Hb. However, in great altitude (more than 3000 msnm), healthy, young individuals exist that practice sports without problems and have : 21 gr/dl of Hb. On the other hand, the South American camelids, in the course of thousands of years, after adopting as own a hemoglobin of high affinity by the oxygen (Bonavia Duccio. 1996. The South American camelids. IFEA-UPCH-Cons. International. Peru), adapted to great altitude, with high levels of Hb, maintaining the fluidity of their blood and with null occurrence of clots. In general this theme is complemented with 2 additives:

1) the each more growing employment on the part of extreme sportsmen (those that desire to establish new world records, to as of place), of artificial elevators of the levels of Hb, in order to improve their muscular force and velocity, on account of a better oxygenation. For such reason many of them are carried out blood autotransfusions, blood transfusions of other compatible people, infusions of Eritropoietina (EPO). Lately, some of them threaten to consume genetic modifiers drugs, capable to generate new muscle EPO. As not all sportsmen develop clots, the possibility exists –continuing the tendency of the extreme sportsmen -of to create a healthy variety and differentiated– of human species, dedicated to these sports, with values of Hb and others, outside of the normally accepted. Option to which for the time being and with great blindness, the Olympic Committee (COI) is opposed alone accepting values of Hb of :14-17 gr/dl for males and 12-15 gr/dl, for women, penalizing to the ones that show off upper values. In this way maintains closed the door, to the emergency of a small group better and healthier human beings. I speak of this theme in a sci-fi article.See it, below in spanish. 2) the second point has to do with certain ambiguity of the norms of the COI. The born runners in high altitude have of natural high levels of Hb, being drugged natural. The COI permits that these, compete with born sportsmen to sea level, what involves to advantages and disadvantages for some and others.

Dopaje y emergencia de nuevas especies adaptativas humanas.

Algunos alumnos cuestionan que avale como normales a los valores de hemoglobina (Hb), establecidos por la Federación Mundial de Hematologia (FMH) : Hombres:14-18 gr /dl y mujeres: 12-16 gr/dl). Otros, aducen que el Perú –según estudios de campo realizados a escala nacional- dispone de valores normales propios de Hb-algo más bajos que los de la FMH-. Aunque procedentes de paises desarrollados, siempre defiendo los valores de la FMH, en tanto corresponden a individuos saludables y de gran expectativa de vida. Añado, que si detectase un buen grupo de individuos que portasen : 20 - 22 gr/dl de Hb y fuesen saludables -sin dudarlo-avalaria a estos como los nuevos valores normales de Hb. Lo que realmente importa no es la cifra, sino el estado de salud favorable que muestren sus portantes. Usualmente soy retrucado con argumentos que señalan que a ese nivel, se producirian trombos y coágulos. Esto, en parte es cierto ; asi lo han establecido ciertos estudios en razón del enlentecimiento del flujo sanguineo a medida que aumentan los niveles de Hb. Empero, a gran altitud (más de 3000 msnm), existen individuos jóvenes, saludables que practican deportes sin problemas y cursan con 21 gr/dl de Hb. De otro lado, los camélidos sudamericanos, en el curso de miles de años, tras adoptar como propia a una hemoglobina de alta afinidad por el oxigeno (Bonavia Duccio.1996. Los camélidos sudamericanos. IFEA-UPCH-Cons. Internacional.Perú), se adaptaron a gran altitud, con niveles elevados de Hb, manteniendo la fluidéz de su sangre y con nula ocurrencia de trombos. En general este tema se complementa con 2 vertientes aditivas:

1) el cada véz más creciente empleo por parte de deportistas extremos (aquellos que desean establecer nuevas marcas mundiales, a como de lugar), de elevadores artifíciales de los niveles de Hb, con el fin de mejorar su fuerza muscular y velocidad, a causa de una mejor oxigenación. Por tal razón muchos de ellos se realizan autotransfusiones sanguineas, transfusiones de otras personas compatibles, infusiones de Eritropoietina (EPO). Ultimamente amenazan ingerir modificadores genéticos medicamentosos, capaces de generar EPO muscular. Como no todos los deportistas desarrollan trombos existe la posibilidad –siguiendo la tendencia de los deportistas extremos-de crear una variedad saludable y diferenciada– de la especie humana, dedicada a estos deportes, con valores de Hb y otros, por fuera de lo normalmente aceptado. Opción a la que de momento y con gran ceguera, se opone el Comité Olimpico Internacional (COI), que solo acepta valores de Hb de 14-17 gr/dl para varones y 12-15 gr/dl, para mujeres, penalizando a los que ostenten valores superiores. De este modo mantiene cerrada la puerta, a la emergencia de un minúsculo grupo de nuevos, mejores y más saludables seres humanos. Hablo de este tema en un articulo sci-fi, que recomiendo leer : 2) el segundo punto tiene que ver con cierta ambigüedad de las normas del COI. Los corredores nacidos en alta altura tienen de natural niveles elevados de Hb, siendo dopados naturales. El COI permite que éstos, compitan con deportistas nacidos a nivel del mar, lo que conlleva a ventajas y desventajas para unos y otros


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