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Friday, July 03, 2009

JEAN PIAGET




Without doubt, one of the big revolutionaries of evolutive psychology is the Swiss Jean Piaget. Central to his work is the epigénesis concept, according to which the growth and development of human intelligence happens in a predictable way, in several stages, corresponding to bigger age, a bigger organization level. A theoretical system of perceptual and intellectual development that explains how children and adolescents think and acquire knowledge, making possible the genesis of abstract thoughts. Piaget, interested in how children arrive to answers, concluded that human intelligence is a logical extension of biological adaptation to the environment.

The evolutionary stages created by Piaget are: I) Sensory-motor (0-2años), basically motor, lacking of external representation of things and concepts. Children cry at 8 months when their mothers (identifiable objects), leave them II) Pre-operational (2-7 years). In this stage children think symbolically. It is the time of spoken language III) Concrete operations (7-11 years). Although in this stage begins to emerge the logical thought, the boy continues applying intuition to concrete problems. IV) Formal operations (11-16 years). The thought is inductive-deductive, in agreement with logical-mathematical concepts. Adolescents uses ideas, metaphors, systems, although continue having difficulties with synthesis. Creation of Piaget is the concept of Genetic Epistemology: acquisition, modification and growth of abstract ideas and abilities on the basis of an inherited biological substratum.

JEAN PIAGET

Uno de los grandes revolucionarios de la psicología evolutiva -que duda cabe- es el suizo Jean Piaget. Central a su trabajo es el concepto de epigénesis, según el cual el crecimiento y desarrollo de la inteligencia humana ocurre de manera predecible, en varios estadios, correspondiendo a mayor edad, un mayor nivel de organización. Un sistema teórico de desarrollo perceptual e intelectual que explica como niños y adolescentes piensan y adquieren conocimiento, haciendo posible la génesis de pensamientos abstractos. Piaget, interesado en como los niños arriban a respuestas, concluyó que la inteligencia es una extensión lógica de la adaptación biológica al medio ambiente.

Las etapas evolutivas creadas por Piaget son: I) Sensorio-motor (0-2años), fundamentalmente motriz, carente de representación externa de las cosas y de conceptos. Los niños lloran a los 8 meses cuando sus madres (objetos identificables), se ván II) Pre-operacional (2-7 años). En este estadio los niños piensan simbólicamente. Es la época del lenguaje hablado III) Operaciones concretas (7-11 años), aunque en esta etapa empieza a emerger el pensamiento lógico propiamente dicho, el niño continúa aplicando la intuición a problemas concretos. IV) Operaciones formales (11-16 años), el pensamiento es inductivo-deductivo, acorde con conceptos lógico-matemáticos. Emplea ideas, metáforas, sistemas, aunque continua teniendo dificultades para la síntesis. Es creación de Piaget, el concepto de Epistemología genética: adquisición, modificación y crecimiento de ideas abstractas y habilidades sobre la base de un substrato heredado- biológico.

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