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Tuesday, October 06, 2009

MEDICINE PRIZE NOBEL 2009

Great consensus existed to grant the Nobel Prize of Medicine and Physiology, 2009 to Elizabeth Blackburn (University of California/Berkeley), Carol Greider (John Hopkins U.) and Jack Szostak Harvard U.) by the discovery of chromosome’s protection during cell division mediated by action of telomere DNA and its enzyme telomerase. A true event that qualifies for scientific breaktrough of the year, having required more than 30 years of studies involving a cilliated unicellular organism, advanced techniques of genetic engineering and brightest minds in the right time.
The Swedish Academy which awards the Prize recognizes the following phases: 1) influence of Muller and McClintock previous works, who recognized chromosome’s protection provided by a unique and repeated sequences of DNA, located in end parts of chromosomes (telomeres) 2) identification of repeated, unique sequences CCCCAA), located in the telomere DNA, with minimal interspecies variations 3) insertion of CCCCAA sequences carried by artificial minichromosomes in yeast cells the same that were protected quickly by internal mechanisms 4) insertion of minichromosomes without CCCCAA telomeric sequences, the same that were rapidly degraded within yeast cells. 5) experiments in other species demonstrating fast aging with shortened telomeres and slow aging in those with adequate lengths of their telomeres 6) recognition that stem and cancer cells have high activity of their enzyme telomerase, which maintain telomeres elongated 7) possible applications: stop telomerase activity in cancer cells 8) to implement techniques in patients with persistent stress, suffering from shortened telomeres.

PREMIO NOBEL DE MEDICINA

Pocas veces existió tanto consenso para otorgar el Premio Nóbel de Medicina y Fisiologia (este año 2009), a Elizabeth Blackburn (U. de California/Berkeley), Carol Greider (U. John Hopkins) y Jack Szostak (U. de Harvard), por el descubrimiento de la protección de cromosomas durante procesos de división celular mediadas por acción de telómeros DNA y la enzima telomerasa. Un verdadero acontecimiento que califica para evento cientifico del año, habiéndose necesitado mas de 30 años de estudios involucrando a un organismo unicelular ciliado, técnicas avanzadas de ingeniería genética y mentes brillantes en el momento justo.

La Academia sueca que otorga el premio reconoce las siguientes fases : 1) se revaloran los trabajos de Muller y Mcclintock quienes reconocieron cierto rol protector de los cromosomas proporcionados por secuencias genéticas acrales cromosomitas (telómeros) 2) determinación de las secuencias únicas, repetidas (CCCCAA), ubicadas en los telómeros DNA, determinándose minimas variantes interespecies 3)inserción de las secuencias CCCCAA, mediante minicromosomas artificiales en células de levadura las mismas que fueron rápidamente protegidas por mecanismos internos 4) inserción de minicromosomas sin secuencias CCCCAA teloméricas, las mismas que fueron rápidamente degradadas al interior de células de levadura. 5) experimentos en otras especies demostrándose envejecimientos rápidos en organismo con telómeros acortados y envejecimiento lento en aquellos con longitudes adecuadas de sus telómeros 6) reconocimiento de que células madre y células cancerosas disponen de gran actividad de sus enzimas telomerasa, manteniendo telómeros alargados 7) posibles aplicaciones : detener la actividad de telomerasa de células cancerosas 8) aplicar variaciones tecnicas a pacientes afectos a estrés persistente, afectos de telómeros acortados.

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