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Wednesday, October 07, 2009


The Swedish Academy awarded the Physics Prize Nobel 2009 to Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith for designing the first the mechanisms for transmission of light signals through thousands of transparent and thinner glass fibers of size less than a hair, bonded in cables optic fiber, currently of 125 micrometers in diameter) and the latter for designing the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) semiconductor sensor embedded in digital cameras. In January 1966 Kao working on Standard Telecommunication Laboratories/England, sent a beam of light into thin glass fibers, the same as bouncing off the walls move forward because the refractive index of the innermost part of the fiberglass (now : 10 micrometers in diameter) is higher than its walls. Although the glass was something impure light signals transmitted up to 100 km (until 1960 only reached 20 m). In 1970, Corning Glass Works produced a ultra optic fiber, which changed the information in the past 40 years, globalizing the world of information transmitting phone messages, text, videos, music, internet in a split second.
In 1969 Drs Boyle and Smith, working at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ, extrapolated ideas of the photoelectric effect explained by A. Einstein (1921), noting that light beams directed against silicon, induced the release of electrons. They came then to create electronic storage. To this aim, particles of light directed against silicon wells, stored detached electrons in small wells (photocells). To more light, more storage of electrons. Subsequently groups of electrons were read one by one. Finally electrons move along tapes being digitally converted into 0s and 1s. Thus CCD electronic imaging sensor converts optical images into electronic signals. A 10-megapixel camera contains 10 million CCDs. Now we have CCDs inserted on telescopes and probes to view the cosmos. Digital cameras photograph deep sea and inner parts of the human body.

La Academia sueca concedió el Premio Nóbel de Fisica a Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle y George E. Smith por diseñar el primero, mecanismos para la trasmisión de señales luminosas mediante millares de fibras de vidrio trasparentes mas delgadas que un pelo, aglutinadas en cables (fibra óptica, actualmente de 125 micrómetros de diámetro) y a los segundos por diseñar el dispositivo de carga acoplada (CCD), sensor semiconductor inserto en cámaras digitales. En Enero de 1966 Kao trabajando en la Standard Telecommunication Laboratorios/England, dirigió un rayo de luz hacia delgadas fibras de vidrio, la misma que rebotando contra sus paredes avanzaba hacia delante porque el índice de refracción de la parte mas interna de la fibra de vidrio (actualmente, 10 micrómetros de diámetro) es mas alta que el de sus paredes. Aunque el vidrio era algo impuro trasmitió señales de luz hasta 100 km (hasta 1960 solo alcanzaban 20 m). En 1970, la Corning Glass Works produjo un fibra óptica ultrapura, que cambió la información en los últimos 40 años, globalizando el mundo de la información trasmitiendo mensajes telefónicos, texto, videos, música, internet en fracciones de segundo.

En 1969 los doctores Boyle y Smith, trabajando en los laboratorios Bell en Murray Hill, N.J., extrapolaron ideas del efecto fotoeléctrico explicado por A. Einstein (1921), al notar que rayos de luz dirigidos contra sílice, inducían el desprendimiento de electrones. Se les ocurrió entonces crear memorias electrónicas. Para ello, dirigieron partículas de luz contra pozos de sílice, almacenando los electrones desprendidos en pequeños pozos (fotocélulas). A más luz, mayor almacenamiento de electrones. Posteriormente las agrupaciones de electrones eran leídas una a una. Finalmente los electrones se desplazan por cintas convirtiéndose digitalmente en 0s y 1s. Asi, el sensor de imágenes electrónico CCD, convierte la imagen óptica en señales electrónicas. Una cámara de 10-megapixels contiene 10 millones de CCDs. CCDs insertos en telescopios y sondas fotografían el cosmos. En cámaras digitales las profundidades del mar y el interior del cuerpo humano.



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