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Wednesday, January 18, 2006

Animal culture.

Speak the animals among them? Does exists an animal culture? In his book “Vivan los animales” (1998. Debate, Madrid), the Spanish philosopher Jesus Mosterin, advances that the culture (intellectual development acquired, done not inherit), is not of entire exclusiveness of the humans. After analyzing extensively the animal conduct (especially that of the chimpanzees), Mosterin dares to advance that in the meantime the communication among animals exists, especially if it : 1) is composed of units of information 2) is trasmitted and 3) is learned for imitation, in a social context. In this case, there are enough reasons to affirm that the animals possess culture. Basic, for the acquisition of this animal culture, is the transmision of the animal information. The American dog’strainer : A.. J. Haggerty in his book “How to teach to speak to your dog” (Simon and Schuster. N.York.2000), affirms that the domestic dog, bark, in his intent to try to say something, imitating the human language. On the contrary, the wild dog, does not bark. He adds that some dogs like bulldogs and rottweilers by the particularities of his heads and speech apparatuses have facilities to be communicated with others dogs and that by means of a training -based on rewards- is possible to cause the dogs to speak. In turn, the russian scientific Alexander Dubrov, said that by means of this dog’s language, these animals transmit love, pain, uncertainty, suffering, etc.

For the dog’s trainer : Brenda Aloff, while the humans communicate through the spoken language, the dogs (the best studied to this respect), do it by means of the body language. In their book “Canine Body language dog, A Photographic Guide”.2005.Dogwise Publishing, she explains that to blink or to turn the head toward a side signify not to be ready to attack, elevation of the legs: uncertainty, to yawn: to be tired, to look at something fixedly to desire that strongly, to move away the look of something: not to desire that. Many emotions (to move the queue, in sign of joy), are aforesaid through signs, facial expressions or, special positions (straightening: greeting and respect), etc. Besides the previous things, there exists other forms to be communicated. The cats employ bioelectromagnetic fields to be located and to recognize difficult geographics places, the bats have an special acustic., etc.

Cultura animal

¿Hablan entre si? ¿tienen cultura, los animales?. En su libro “Vivan los animales” (1998.Debate, Madrid), el filosofo español Jesús Mosterin, postula que la cultura (desarrollo intelectual adquirido, no heredado), no es de entera exclusividad de los humanos
. Tras analizar extensamente la conducta animal (en especial la de los chimpancés), Mosterin se atreve a postular que en tanto la comunicación entre los animales: 1) se compone de unidades de información 2) es trasmitida y 3) se aprende por imitación, en un contexto social, dispone de razones mas que suficientes para afirmar que los animales poseen cultura. Factor basico para la adquisición de esta cultura animal, es la trasmision de la información animal. Al respecto, el entrenador de perros americano A.J. Haggerty en su libro “Como enseñar a hablar a su perro”(Simon and Schuster.N.York.2000), afirma que el perro domestico ladra, en su intento de tratar de decir algo, imitando al lenguaje humano. El perro salvaje, no ladra. Agrega que algunos perros como los bulldogs y los rottweilers por las particularidades de sus cabezas y aparatos fonadores tendrian mas facilidades para comunicarse que otros y que mediante un entrenamiento basado en recompensas, es posible hacerlos hablar. Por su parte, el ruso Alexander Dubrov, agrega que mediante este lenguaje, los animales trasmiten amor, dolor, incertidumbre, sufrimiento,etc.

Para la entrenadora de perros: Brenda Aloff, mientras los humanos se comunican por medio del lenguaje hablado, los perros (los mas estudiados al respecto), lo hacen mediante el lenguaje corporal. En su libro “El lenguaje corporal canino. Guia Fotografica”, explica que parpadear o voltear la cabeza hacia un lado significan no estardispuesto a agredir, elevación de las patas: incertidumbre, bostezar: estar cansado, mirar algo fijamente desear aquello, vivamente, alejar la mirada de algo :no desear aquello. Muchas emociones (mover la cola .en señal de alegria), son expresadas mediante gestos, expresiones faciales o posturas especiales (estiramiento: saludo y respeto), etc. Al lado de lo anterior, existirian otras formas de comunicarse. Los gatos emplean campos bioelectromagneticos, para ubicarse y reconocer espacios geograficos difíciles, los murcielagos una acustica especial, etc.


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