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Tuesday, October 03, 2006

Medicine Nobel Prize. Discovering cell inmunology.

See here, videos :1) expresión genética 2) silenciamiento genético y 3) amplificación del RNAi. Nature and Arkitek, courtesy.


Left. Andrew Fire.Right.Craig C.Mello. NYtimes,Courtesy.



We have struggled in the course of the day of informing us - in extensive - in relation to academic rewards of Andrew Z. Fire (47 years old. Department of Pathology and Genetic. University of Stanford) and Craig C. Mello (Unit of Molecular Medicine. School of Medicine of the University of Massachussets) that have made them worthy yesterday to Nobel Prize of Medicine of this year. The truth is that the logic of their discoveries and its exquisite simplicity, are so fundamental as so to be capable to open small doors, finishes carrying out instantly to the discovery of enormous quarries of knowledge.

I) If a systemic human immunology exists - Fire and Mello -have just discovered pieces of cellular immunology defense (Nature,1998.Potent and specific genetic interfirience by (ds) RNA in C. elegans. 391.806-811): the way like cells, have defended, throughout millions of years against the invasion and attack of virus, trasposons, germs, etc. : annulling, diminishing or destroying their RNA messengers (RNAm), payees of instructions toward ribosomes, final elaborators of proteins (beneficent or destructives). In these cases, the cells generate RNA complexs and RNA of double strand (dsRNA) that destroys or nullify dsRNA or RNAm of the aggressors germs. With this method called : Interference RNA (RNAi), specific genes and correspondent proteins are silenced. See Top. Video. Arkitek, courtesy. The effect is so long lived that at least in experimentation worms, it is transmitted to their following generations. Using the same model it is hoped to annul RNAm of the virus of the infectious hepatitis, of the AIDS, of the causing of the high cholesterol, of many virus, of many cancers.And, also transplant or to activate RNAi, to (in), other organisms.

II) Fire and Mello, obtained great part of their knowledge, mercy to studies carried out in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, a round nemátod of 320 neurons. This way, they understood that RNAi, is also used for embryos in development, to maintain or to silence genes that allow their germinal layers, differentiate in specialized tissues (hepatic, heart, renal, etc). Mercy to a better understanding of these genetic silence, Fire and Mello, are now even able to predict the final destination of certain early embryonic cells, their communication ways and final differentiation. For us Fire and Mello, are serious candidates to obtain the prize to the scientific breakthrough of the year, granted annually by the noted magazine : Science.

Premio Nobel de Medicina = Principios de inmunologia celular.

Hemos pugnado en el transcurso del dia de informarnos -in extenso- en relación a los merecimientos académicos de Andrew Z. Fire (47 años. Unidad de Patología de la Universidad de Stanford) y Craig C. Mello (Unidad de Medicina Molecular. Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Massachussets), que los han hecho merecedores el dia de ayer, al Premio Nobel de Medicina de este año. La verdad que sus descubrimientos lógicos en si mismos y de una exquisita sencilléz, son a la véz tan fundamentales y suficientes como para que abriendo pequeñas portezuelas terminen conduciéndonos instantáneamente al descubrimiento de enormes canteras de conocimientos.

I) Si existe una inmunologia sistémica humana -Fire y Mello- acaban de descubrir retazos de la inmunologia celular : el modo como las células, se han defendido, a lo largo de millones de años de la invasión y ataque de virus, trasposones, bacterias, etc. : minimizando, anulando o destruyendo sus RNA mensajeros (RNAm), portadores de instrucciones hacia los ribosomas, elaboradores últimos de proteinas (benéficas o destructoras). En estos casos, las células generan complejos de RNA o, RNA de doble cadena (dsRNA), que destruye o nulifica los dsRNA o, los RNAm de los gérmenes agresores. Con este método denominado : RNA de interferencia (RNAi), se silencian genes especificos y se anula la generación de proteinas. El efecto es tan duradero que al menos en gusanos de experimentación, se trasmite a las siguientes generaciones. Empleando el mismo modelo se espera anular los RNAm del virus de la hepatitis infecciosa, del virus del Sida, de los causantes del colesterol alto, de muchos virus, de muchos cánceres.Y, también transplantar o activar RNAi, en otros organismos.

II) Fire y Mello (Nature,1998.391:806-811), obtuvieron gran parte de sus conocimientos, merced a estudios realizados en el gusano Caenorhabtidis elegans, un nemátodo redondo de 320 neuronas. Asi, entendieron que el RNAi, tambien es empleado por embriones en desarrollo, para mantener o silenciar genes que permiten que sus capas germinales, se diferencien en tejidos especializados (hepático, cardiaco, renal, etc). Merced a una mejor comprensión de estos silenciamientos genéticos, Fire y Mello, son ahora hasta capaces de predecir el destino final de determinadas células embrionarias tempranas, sus modos de comunicación y diferenciación final. Para nosotros Fire y Mello, son candidatos de fuerza a obtener el Premio al evento cientifico del año, otorgado anualmente por la prestigiosa revista Science.

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