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Thursday, July 26, 2007

Boson of Higgs:Blogs and High Energy Physics.

Left. Drawing taken from Nature.


Certain fundamental aspects of physics have begun to be debated in blogs. Tommaso Dorigo (July,21), of the University of Papua/Italy : A Quantum Diaries Survivor., comments the possible discovery (0-10% of possibilities), of the boson of Higgs, according to experiments made the 2000, in the collider Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory/USA, according to which, the boson of Higgs, has been discovered. Jacobo Konigsberg, of Florida University of, says that " blogs are now, a powerful weapon in the mouth of a few”. The Nature magazine, by its side comments that the boson of Higgs is too heavy to be detected by the european collider CERN, in as much it has a mass considered in 114.000 million electron-volts (GeV), equivalent to 1 billion electron-volts. Whenever the weight of the boson does not surpass the 170-180 GeV, the LHC (Great Hadron Collider), would guarantee the discovery of bosons of Higgs, that could only exist during a brief period initiated 10-35 seconds after the explosion of the Big Bang. Its decay had produced an excess of particles of matter on those of antimatter. Its discovery would explain the mechanism by which elementary particles acquire mass. The model proposed by the physicist Peter Higgs is evolutionary: it goes from but simple to the most complex thing (from the photon massless to the relatively heavy bosons W and Z). The mass of a boson of Higgs is little diferent from the empty space. In fields of low energy (empty space) these paradoxically, do not exhibit zero energy. The level but under energy exhibits a particle crown (without own energy), that shortly after the Big Bang, had interacted with other particles, doing them to gain mass. A boson near 1 electron, would make that this develops a force between the 2. If the particles do not gain mass interacting with the boson, then the boson of Higgs, exists, although single we will be certain if we found it. The group D-Zero that analyzes the evidences, will give its opinion when it is verified that registered fluctuations are not a statistical fluctuation at random.

The Standard Model accepts that all particles are born equal and without mass. Soon some of them will wander by the fields of Higgs, acquiring mass. As the model does not say how much weights the boson, the physicists try to calculate it hitting subatomic particles each other, quantifying their by-products. If the boson is present, this will decay in small jets of quarks or other identifiable particles (depending on its mass). The more heavy is the boson, it will have more particles. According to Dr. Dorigo, in quantum mechanics always it is possible to identify unusual fluctuations phenomena, not always corresponding to elementary particles, adding that to determine the meaning of these fluctuations are the barren part but of the Standard model. Despite it , the reserachers has a standard of gold : a 5-sigma has been determined (measurement of standard deviation). With it, Konigsberg predicts that the boson must have a right mass over 14 billion electron volts, with which the American Tevatron has chances to find it. If the boson is very heavy it will be difficult to see it. At the most light, better. When John Conway, professor of the Californian University, found a suspicious fluctuation in the data of Fermilab, wrote in the blog Cosmic Variance that he and his colleagues of Rutgers University, have found an excessive number of pairs of taus (heavy relatives of the electron), by-product of proton collisions. If taus, were by-products of the boson of Higgs, it will have a mass of 150 billion electron volts (2-sigma, even far from the 5-sigma). Dr. Dorigo asks himself in his blog if the group D-Zero, had analyzed an excess of b-quarks descovered in the Tevatron (4-5 sigma, being conceived a boson with a mass of 180 billion electron volts). By his side, Gordon Watts (blog: Life as a Physicist), physicist of the University de Washington criticized to Dr. Dorigo for speculate on the basis of rumors. Around b-quark, Dr Konigsberg, says that this is a by-product of 1 of 5 possible bosons of Higgs, predicted by Supersymmetry (unifiying theory of nature). Supersymmetry predicts the existence of but elementary particles, one of which will be the component of dark matter, that unites the galaxies in the universe.

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