Sunday, October 21, 2007

JAMES WATSON and HUMAN INTELLIGENCE




What scientific sustenance has James Watson' opinions (79 years. 1958, Prize Nobel Winner of Physiology and Medicine), when declaring that the future of Africa is poor, because African color people are less intelligent than her western white tallies?

I) Few solid evidences, although very good hypothesis. Watson supports his declarations through a survey carried out in USA (Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990), using scores of IQ (Intelligent Quotient), that grant low values to black afro/american people and black people employers' declarations. Obviating the IQ test (imperfect score as long as it evaluates alone certain student capacities) and considering to the intelligence like a property of the mind related with abilities like: to reason, to plan, to solve problems, to think in abstract, to understand ideas, to use the language and to learn, we cannot refuse that along the humanity's history they have existed, they exist and will exist people with but intelligence that others. For it is difficult not to agree with Watson when he affirms: "It is difficult to accept that intellectual capacities of countries separated in their evolution find had to evolve in an identical way" "to say that all people has identical intelligence, it doesn't pass of being a good desire, not proven scientifically". For us, to say that all humans have identical intelligence is to deny to the evolution like a selective process. Thus, Watson guesses right in a general sense. Saying it otherwise: if black people or any other minority had been in positions of power and/or culturally favorable ambient along many years, certain desirable capacities during this exercise would have stamped their genetic print in their brains, leaving in disadvantage to tallies that were not in such position. Judge each one which human group has usually been in situations of power and related, during a lot of time.

II) According to Watson, the genes can give bill of many behavioral features including crime rate, autism, schizophrenia, interrelations among them and finally our behavior and intelligence. For the time being it is known that depression (sometimes genetically determined), interferes with memory and concentration. It is a good hypothesis, to consider that natural selection establishes different behaviours in people of different geographical regions of the world. Watson is consistent when affirming that his declarations were misinterpreted as long as the aim of it is try to understand why some humans are big musicians and other big engineers. Although in scientific fields some say that intelligence is inherited and others that it is the result of environmental influences, the certain thing is that most scientifics accepts that the way in which the brain is constituted will influence in better human performances. Another thing is to take advantage of these knowledge to propagate racist ideas. We estimate that Watson has spoken in a general way, Condoleezza Rice and other black personalities are individualities. Finally that Watson's declarations or other, generate controversy is normal in scientific fields. For it, we don´t understand why he was temporarily suspended in his job in Cold Spring. This way nobody will share his opinions, for fear. The topic is not to veto to Watson, but refuting him with supposedly better logical arguments.
JAMES WATSON y la INTELIGENCIA HUMANA

¿Que sustento cientifico tienen las opiniones de James Watson (79 años. Premio Nóbel de Medicina,1958), al declarar que el futuro de Africa es pobre, porque la gente de color africana es menos inteligente que sus contrapartes blancas occidentales?

Pocas evidencias sólidas, aunque si muy buenas hipótesis. Watson apoya sus declaraciones en una encuesta llevada a cabo en USA (1990), empleando scores de IQ, que otorgan valores bajos a la gente de color afro/americana y declaraciones de empleadores de gente de color. Obviando al test IQ (score imperfecto en tanto evalúa solo ciertas capacidades estudiantiles) y considerando a la inteligencia como una propiedad de la mente relacionada con habilidades como : razonar, planear, resolver problemas, pensar en abstracto, comprender ideas, usar el lenguaje y aprender, no se puede negar que a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad han existido, existen y existirán personas con mas inteligencia que otras. Por ello es dificil no estar de acuerdo con Watson cuando afirma : “Es dificil aceptar que las capacidades intelectuales de pueblos separados en su evolución hallan tenido que evolucionar de modo idéntico" ”Suponer a todas las personas con inteligencia idéntica, no pasa de ser un buen deseo, no probado científicamente”. Para nosotros, postular que todos los humanos son iguales en inteligencia seria negar a la evolución como un proceso discriminador y selectivo. Acierta pues Watson, en un sentido general. Diciéndolo de otro modo : si las personas de color o cualquier otra minoria hubiese estado en posiciones de poder y/o medios ambientes culturalmente favorables a lo largo de muchos años, ciertas capacidades deseables durante este ejercicio habrian estampado su huella genética en sus cerebros, dejando en desventaja a contrapartes que no estuviesen en tal posición. Juzgue cada uno que grupo humano ha estado usualmente en situaciones de poder y relacionados, durante mucho tiempo.

II) Según Watson, los genes pueden dar cuenta de muchos rasgos conductuales incluyendo la inteligencia, la criminalidad, el autismo, la esquizofrenia, las interrelaciones entre ellos y por ende nuestra conducta e inteligencia. Por lo pronto se sabe que la depresión (algunas veces genéticamente condicionada), interfiere con la memoria y la concentración. Es una buena hipótesis, considerar que la selección natural establece diferencias de conducta en personas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo. Watson es consistente al afirmar que sus declaraciones fueron malinterpretadas en tanto de lo que se trata es comprender porque unos son grandes músicos y otros grandes ingenieros. Aunque en predios cientificos unos opinan que la inteligencia es heredada y otros que es el resultado de influencias medioambientales, lo cierto es que la mayoria acepta que la forma en que se constituya el cerebro influenciará en mejores performances humanas. Otra cosa es aprovecharse de estos conocimientos para propalar ideas racistas. Estimamos que Watson ha hablado de modo general, Condoleezza Rice, el ex presidente de la ONU y otras personalidades son individualidades. Finalmente que las declaraciones de Watson u otros, generen controversia es normal en predios cientificos. Por ello, no se entiende su suspensión temporal laboral en Cold Spring. Asi nadie vá a opinar, por temor. El tema no es vetar a Watson, sino refutarlo con argumentos lógicos supuestamente mejores.

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

An apportionment of human DNA diversity

http://static.scribd.com/docs/6sp4qwfb7svkk.swf?INITIAL_VIEW=width

Anonymous said...

An apportionment of human DNA diversity

PDF

http://www.esyurl.com/1m8

Anonymous said...

OK, nature wisely has ruled out to cloning (all alike), as a method of survival of living organisms, because changing environments requires, constant adjustments. Thanks to diversity we have been able to live and develop to complex levels as we exhibit now. Differences in intelligence?: That well, That's OK. best regards. vmm.

Anonymous said...

Es una verguenza que Watson dijera eso y que agregara
"Y todo los que tienen un empleado de color saben a lo que me refiero"
Eso no es ciencia, se llama pseudociencia, que es tratar de justificar los propios prejuicios usando el lenguaje de la ciencia.

Mire el Blog
http://tirandotrocha.blogspot.com/