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Thursday, October 08, 2009

NOBEL PRIZE CHEMISTRY 2009





Explanation of structure and function of ribosomes as manufacturer of proteins urged the Swedish Academy to grant the Prize Nobel of Chemistry 2009 to the Hindu Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (MRC Laboratory Molecular of Biology/Cambridge/England), the American Thomas A. Steitz (Yale University) and to the Israeli Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute of Science/ Rehovot/Israel). I) Ribosomes are a RNA-protein complex found in any nucleated cell. Their function is to read genetic blueprint transported by mRNA (RNA messenger), coming from the DNA to produce polipetidic chains (proteins), using amino acids transported by tRNA (transfer RNA), without mistakes. II) In 1970, Yonath deepens ribosome study, experiencing with crystal coming from the bacteria Geobacillus stearothemophilus that survives temperatures of up to 75 °C, that contain great quantity of stable ribosomes, forming better glasses. After irradiating the glass with X-rays she obtained diffraction patterns conformed by millions of points and blobs, coming from the bigger ribosome subunit. Yonath faces 2 problems in the following years: impurity of her crystals and exact interpretation of dots and blobs. Ramakrishnan that for then had decoded the structure of the small subunit, faced the same problem.

III) It would be Steitz, who would solve the problem of dots and arches with help of electronic microscopy, specifying the orientation and ribosome localization in the interior of crystals. The final information of the atomic structure would arrive the 2000, after the employment on the part of Steitz and Ramakrishnan of X-rays coming from the Syncroton of Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source. The same year, Yonath, fourth woman in winning a Prize Nobel of Chemistry publishes her own analysis of the 2 parts of the ribosome. a) These studies will allow to create new antibiotics since to hinder ribosome’s function is equal to kill germs. b) If the ribosomas makes proteins being compound themselves of proteins: which came first? Answer: The RNA learned how to make proteíns.c) Previous studies give a partial answer to the question formulated by Crick and Watson :How the genetic code becomes an alive being?.

PREMIO NOBEL DE QUIMICA 2009
El desentrañamiento de la estructura y función de los ribosomas como fábricas de proteínas instó a la Academia Sueca a otorgar el Premio Nobel de Qumica 2009 al trio conformado por el hindú Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology/Cambridge/England), al americano Thomas A. Steitz (Yale University) y a la israelí Ada E. Yonath (Weizmann Institute of Science /Rehovot/Israel). I) Los ribosomas son complejos RNA-proteinas hallados en cualquier célula nucleada. Su función es leer la codificación transportada por el mRNA (RNA mensajero), procedente del DNA y producir cadenas polipetidicas (proteinas), empleando aminoácidos trasportados por el tRNA (RNA de transferencia), sin error alguno posible. II) En 1970, Yonath profundizo el estudio de ribosomas, experimentando con cristales procedentes de la bacteria Geobacillus stearothemophilus que sobrevive a temperaturas de hasta 75 °C y que por contener gran cantidad de ribosomas estables, forma mejores cristales. Tras irradiar el cristal con rayos-X, obtuvo patrones de difracción conformados por millones de puntos y arcos, procedentes de la subnidad mayor ribosomal. Yonath enfrento 2 problemas en los siguientes años :la impureza de sus cristales y la exacta interpretación de puntos y arcos. Ramakrishnan, que por entonces había decodificado la estructura de la subunidad mas pequeña, enfrentaba el mismo problema.

III)Seria Steitz, el que interpretaria puntos y arcos con la ayuda de microscopia electrónica, especificando la orientación y localización de ribosomas al interior del cristal. La información final de la estructura atomica llegaría el 2000 tras el empleo de por parte de Steitz y Ramakrishnan de rayos X procedentes del Syncroton de Brookhaven National Laboratory’s National Synchrotron Light Source. Ese mismo año, Yonath, cuarta mujer en ganar un Prremio Nobel de Quimica publicó su propio análisis de las 2 partes del ribosoma. a)Estos estudios permitirán crear nuevos antibióticos ya que entorpecer la función ribosomal equivale a matar bacterias. b) si los ribosomas hacen proteínas estando compuestos ellos mismos de proteínas ¿quien vino primero? Respuesta: el RNA aprendió a hacer proteínas.c)los estudios precedentes dan una respuesta parcial a la pregunta formulada por Crick y Watson ¿como deviene el codigo genético en un ser vivo?.

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