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Tuesday, June 12, 2007

Edible vaccines against cholera


A team led by Hiroshi Kiyono, Division of Mucosal Inmunology/University of Tokyo, has created a strain of transgenic rice (genetically modified genetically), capable of acting like effective vaccine against Vibryo cholera, cause of Cholera (severe diarrheas and some 200,000 deaths, each year in Africa, India, Russia, etc). The edible vaccine whose effectiveness, has been demonstrated in mice and requires reinforcements, resists stomach sour juices and maintains its strength along 18 months, to environment temperature. As long as each grain of rice carries variable concentrations of the vaccine (30 ug), there are plans to convert them to powder (placed in the inner of capsules or pills). As long as, the plants of rice don't disperse its pollen massively, are broadly cultivated and carry less risk of contaminating near crops, it is foreseen that they will be useful against botulism, influenza, anthrax, etc. An advantage of oral vaccines is to generate systemic and local immune reactions (mucous of mouth, nose and genital tract), for which reasons they would be also useful against E. coli and the virus of the human inmunodeficiency, of influenza, of SARS, etc. The little interest of big pharmaceutical companies toward these vaccines is the cause of its scarce development.


Vacunas orales contra el Cólera.


Un equipo encabezado por Hiroshi Kiyono de la División : Mucosal Inmunology de la Universidad de Tokio, ha creado una cepa de arróz transgénico (modificado genéticamente), capáz de actuar como vacuna eficáz, contra Vibryo cholera, causante del Cólera (diarreas severas y unas 200,000 muertes, c/año, en Africa, India, Rusia, etc). La vacuna cuya eficacia oral, ha sido demostrada en ratones y requiere refuerzos, resiste los jugos acidos estomacales y mantiene su potencia a lo largo de 18 meses, a temperatura ambiente. En tanto cada grano de arroz porta concentraciones variables de la vacuna (30 ug), hay planes para acondicionarlas en polvo (al interior de cápsulas o pastillas). En tanto, las plantas de arroz no dispersan masivamente su polen, son ampliamente cultivadas y cursan con menos riesgo de contaminar cosechas cercanas, se entrevé que serán útiles contra el botulismo, la influenza , el ántrax, etc. Una ventaja de las vacunas orales es generar reacciones inmunes sistémicas y locales (mucosas de boca, nariz y tracto genital), por lo que tambien serian útiles contra E. coli y los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, de la influenza, del SARS, etc. El poco interés de las grandes compañias farmacéuticas, hacia estas vacunas es la causa de su escaso desarrollo.

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