Tuesday, July 29, 2008

MIRRORS, NARCISSUS and Us.







Mirrors can afford us some surprises:
1)They are used to study how the brain decide among the self and non-self, how it judges distances and trajectories of objects and how it reconstructs starting from a sheet of 2D retinal photoreceptors, to the rich quality of the 3D external world.
2) Mirrors can subtly affect human behavior in a positive sense. Mirrors are applied in medicine to create reflected reconstructed images of lost extremities, deceiving the brain, inducing it to operate a self-healing (syndrome of phantom member, chronic pain and post stroke paralysis).
3)Although face-recognition in mirrors is rare among animals, dolphins and Asian elephants, analyze in front of a mirror marks applied to their faces, scrutinize its mouths, noses, genital and until its personal hygiene. Up to now only humans, dolphins and elephants had demonstrated this ability. Monkeys and birds perceive themselves like strangers. An animal capable of self recognition can infer the thought of others.
4) According to, C. Neil Macrae, Galen V. Bodenhausen and Alan B. Milne, in a living room with mirrors one works hard, but healthily and chat less, compared with control groups without mirrors. In living rooms with mirrors, people judge less to others, based on social stereotypes of sex, race or religion, because mirrors help them to know themselves first. However, before mirrors, liars can increase their tendencies.
5)Nicholas Epley and Erin Whitchurch asked people to identify images of themselves, inside a heap of distractors. The participants identified their features but quickly if these favored them aesthetically. “We don't shine equally every day, says Epley (University of Chicago. Graduate School of Business), we have images for each occasion”. If ambiguity exists, people on average solves this, to its favor choosing the images but attractive, with the help of an internal brain fotoshop.

6)When we observe our reflected image in front of a mirror, a question is important : how big is our reflected image on the surface of the mirror? What will pass to that size, if we go back? The answers are always erroneous: my reflected face, is bigger than my real face, the size of my face will decrease if I go back. Wrong, because our reflected face, will always be half of the size of the real face, let us go back or not, although the environment changes. According to Marco Bertamini (U/Liverpool), our reflected image doesn't change because the mirror always is in the half between the observer and its reflection. But if a friend comes closer or moves away, his size in the mirror will grow or will be reduced.
7)Rebecca Lawson, explains the previous with the 6 tall, identical twin's example, separated by a mobile division. How tall will be the window in the division, to allow to one of them, to see the 6 feet of the other one?. The window need visible light of the top of the head and of the bottom of the other twin's feet. Then the light will converge before the twin observer's eyes. a) If the division is near the twin observer, the superior and inferior light points, have begun to converge, so the opening needs to be to 6 feet of high to allow to see the whole body. b) If the division is far from the twin observer the light has concluded of converging, so the window will be small. c) If the division is in the half, the opening will be of 3 feet of high (the half). The mirrors follows the same laws, Lawson says. For that reason when we look at ourselves in front of a mirror we become a Narcissus eternally chained to our half image reflected in the other side.

ESPEJOS, NARCISO y NOSOTROS



Los espejos pueden depararnos algunas sorpresas :
1)Son empleados para estudiar como el cerebro decide entre el yo y el ello, como juzga las distancias y trayectorias de los objetos y como reconstruye a partir de una hoja de receptores retinales de 2 dimensiones, la rica calidad del mundo externo, tridimensional.
2) Los espejos pueden afectar sutilmente la conducta humana en sentido positivo. Se aplican espejos en medicina para crear imágenes reflejadas (reconstruidas), de extremidades perdidas u otras, engañando al cerebro, induciéndolo a curarse a si mismo (síndrome del miembro fantasma, dolor crónico y paralisis post accidente cerebro vasculares).
3)Aunque el auto-reconocimiento en espejos es raro entre animales, delfines y elefantes asiáticos, analizan frente a un espejo marcas aplicadas a sus caras, escrutan sus bocas, narices, genitales y hasta su higiene personal. Hasta ahora solo humanos, delfines y elefantes habian demostrado esta habilidad. Monos y pajaros se autoperciben como extraños. Un animal que se reconoce a si mismo, puede inferir el pensamiento de otros.
4) Según, C. Neil Macrae, Galen V. Bodenhausen y Alan B. Milne, en un salón con espejos se trabaja mas duro, mas sanamente y se habla menos comparado con grupos controles sin espejos. En salones con espejos, las personas juzgan menos a otros, basados en estereotipos sociales de sexo, raza o religión, debido a que los espejos los ayudan a auto-conocerse a ellos mismos, primero. Empero, ante mentirosos, los espejos puede aumentar, mas que limitar sus tendencias.


5)Nicholas Epley y Erin Whitchurch pidieron a la gente identificar imagenes de ellos, dentro de un cumulo de caras distractoras. Los participantes identificaban sus rasgos mas rápidamente si estas los favorecían estéticamente. No lucimos igual todos los dias dice Epley (
University of Chicago
. Graduate School of Business), disponemos de imagenes para cada ocasión. Si existe ambiguedad, la gente en promedio resuelve esta, a su favor eligiendo las imagenes mas atractivas, mediante fotoshops cerebrales internos.
6)Cuando estamos observándonos frente al espejo de un baño, seria importante preguntarse ¿cuan grande es nuestra imagen reflejada sobre la superficie del espejo? Que le pasara a ese tamaño, si retrocedemos? Las respuestas siempre son erroneas : mi cara reflejada, es mayor que el tamaño de mi cara real, el tamaño de mi cara se reducirá si retrocedo. Errores, porque nuestra cara reflejada, siempre será la mitad del tamaño de la cara real, retrocedamos o no y aunque cambie el medio ambiente. Según Marco Bertamini (U de Liverpool), nuestra imagen reflejada no cambia porque el espejo siempre esta en la mitad entre el observador y su reflejo virtual. Empero si un amigo se acerca o aleja, el tamaño de este, en el espejo crece o se achica.
7)Rebecca Lawson, explica lo anterior con el ejemplo del gemelo idéntico, de 6 pies de altura, separados por una division mobil, entre ambos. ¿Cuan alta debera ser la ventana en la división, para permitirle a uno de ellos, ver los 6 pies del otro?. La ventana necesita luz visible de lo alto de la cabeza y del fondo de los pies del otro gemelo, las mismas que deberan convergir delante de los ojos del gemelo observador. a) Si la division esta cerca del gemelo observador, los puntos de luz superior e inferior, han empezado a convergir de modo que la apertura necesita estar a 6 pies de alto para permitir ver el cuerpo entero. b) Si la division esta lejos del gemelo observador la luz ha finalizado de convergir, de modo que la ventana sera pequeña. c) Si la división esta en la mitad, la apertura debera ser de 3 pies de alto (la mitad). Los espejos son iguales dice Lawson. Por eso cuando nos miramos frente a un espejo nos convertimos en Narcisos encadenados eternamente a nuestra semimagen reflejada en el otro lado.

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