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Friday, October 16, 2009

HUMAN EPIGENOME PROJECT





After decoding the human genome (2003), now it is started the Human Epigenome Project (HEP) to establish gene-environment interactions in order to delineate the phenotype without changing the sequence of genetic letters. HEP aims to identify, classify and interpret methylation patterns of genes in all major tissues. Methylation occurs naturally in cytosine base sequences: CpG to control the expression of genes. Differently methylated cytosines give rise to specific patterns of tissue type and disease. Methylated variable positions (MVPs) are common epigenetic markers. A study that will have implications over agriculture, human biology, disease, stem cells, cancer and aging.

The first step in HEP, has just given by Bing Ren, Ryan Lister, Joseph Ecker of the Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, to establish significant differences in methylation patterns of totipotent embryonic stem cells and somatic cells. Ecker stated that embryonic stem cells had only 25% of methylated C's not followed by G, while 99.8% of somatic cells were methylated C's followed by G, determining the biochemistry conformation of pluripotency. The complete HEP map will set up all control mechanisms of the human genome, allowing recognition of methylation patterns in disease, aging, nutrition. Eventually a cancer patient might be treated with epigenetic drugs. Also will allow us to understand why humans have so few genes.

PROYECTO EPIGENOMA HUMANO

Trás el desciframiento del Genoma Humano (2003), se inicia ahora el Human Epigenome Project (HEP), para establecer las interacciones genes-medioambiente delineadoras del fenotipo, sin cambiar la secuencia de las letras genéticas. El HEP pretende identificar, catalogar e interpretar los patrones de metilación de los genes en todos los tejidos mayores. La metilación ocurre en forma natural en las secuencias de bases citosina : CpG para controlar la correcta expresión de los genes. Citosinas metiladas en forma diferente dan lugar a patrones específicos de tipo tisular y enfermedad. Las posiciones variables de metilación (MVPs), son marcadores epigenéticos comunes. Un estudio que terminado tendrá implicaciones en agricultura, biología humana, enfermedad, células madre, cáncer y envejecimiento.

El primer paso para el HEP, lo acaban de dar Bing Ren, Ryan Lister, Joseph Ecker del Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, al establecer diferencias significativas en los patrones de metilación de células madre embrionarias totipotentes y células somaticas. Ecker estableció que las células madre embrionarias tenían solo un 25 % de letras C metiladas, no seguidas por G, en tanto un 99,8% de células somáticas tenían letras C metiladas seguidas de G, determinando la conformación bioquimica de pluripotencia. El mapa HEP completo establecerá todos los mecanismos de control del genoma humano, permitiendo reconocer los patrones de metilación en la enfermedad, envejecimiento, nutrición,etc. Eventualmente un paciente con cáncer podría ser tratado con medicamentos epigenéticos. Asimismo nos permitirá entender porque teniendo los humanos tan pocos genes (~ 40,000), somos más que la suma de los mismos.

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