Thursday, December 08, 2011

BUILDING A.I.


When I.B.M. proposed to Dharmendra S Modha the construction of artificial intelligence, like that of a human brain, the task seemed impossible. Modha outlined the following plan: 1) To imitate the biological functioning of neurons and human synapses 2) Create the first biological chip (neuromorphic) 3) Reduce the size of neuromorphic chips 4) Create the software. It is said that DNA is the original software. After receiving additional funds from the american Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), he added another objectives: 5) Low power. The current smarter I.B.M. computer consumes 85.000 watts of electricity; the human brain just 20 watts. 6) Self-organize system 7) The system should learn for itself. Modha proudly says that since 3 years he leads the project under the sponsorship of IBM and 4 American universities, Cornell, Columbia, Wisconsin and California-Merced.

Modha, has just built the first prototype of a neurosynaptic microprocessor (chip), more like to neurons and synapses than that to conventional semiconductors. The prototype consists of 256 nodes (neurons), surrounded by 262 000 synaptic memory modules. The method of Modha to build AI is : reverse brain engineering. The human brain computes in a different way to today's computers. Its processors (neurons) are massively distributed, its memory devices are in synapses with efficient communication everywhere through axons conductors of electrical impulses. The first goals of the AI that builds Modha are to identify someone walking in a crowd, create devices for the blind to see, robots capable of learning to navigate the battlefield, and so on.

CONSTRUYENDO  INTELIGENCIA   ARTIFICIAL
Cuando la IBM le propuso a Dharmendra S Modha, la construcción de Inteligencia Artificial, semejante a la de un cerebro humano, la tarea parecía imposible. Modha trazó el siguiente plan: 1) Imitar el funcionamiento biológico de neuronas y sinapsis 2) Crear el primer chip biológico (neuromorfo) 3) Reducir el tamaño de chips neuromorfos 4) Crear los softwares. Se dice que el DNA es el software original. Tras recibir ayuda adicional del Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) americano, añadió otros objetivos : 5) Bajo consumo energético. El ordenador actual más inteligente de la IBM consume 85,000 watts de electricidad ; el cerebro humano apenas 20 watts. 6) Sistema autorganizable 7) Más que obedecer programas, el sistema debería aprender por sí mismo. Orgullosamente Modha afirma que desde hace 3 años lidera el proyecto bajo el patrocinio de la IBM y 4 Universidades americanas, Cornell, Columbia, Wisconsin, California-Merced.

Modha, acaba de construir el primer prototipo de microprocesador (chip), neurosináptico, mas semejante a neuronas y sinapsis que a semiconductores convencionales. El prototipo consta de 256 nodos (neuronas), rodeadas de 262 000 módulos sinápticos de memoria. El método de Modha para construir IA es ingenieria cerebral en reversa. El cerebro humano computa de un modo diferente al de las computadoras actuales. Sus procesadores (neuronas), están masivamente distribuidas, sus dispositivos de memoria se hallan en sinapsis con comunicación eficiente por doquier a través de axones conductores de impulsos eléctricos. Los primeros objetivos de la IA que construye Modha son identificar a alguien caminando en una multitud, crear dispositivos para hacer ver a ciegos, crear robots capaces de aprender a navegar por campos de batalla, etc.

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