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Friday, October 06, 2006

Fathers and sons.






Video (NewyorkTimes courtesy): Arthur and Roger Kornberg.
Explantion in Spanish: Roger Kornberg dice que esta asombrado por el premio y que ve muchas aplicaciones futuras a este tipo de investigaciones. Su padre dice que cuando era niño le preguntaron a Roger, por un deseo. Roger, dijo que deseaba pasar una semana en el laboratorio.
It moves to contemplate the video propagated by NYTimes (05/Octubre/2006), in the one that Arthur and Roger Kornberg (father and son), talked colloquially to little that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, designates as only winner of the Nóbel Prize of Chemistry of this year, to Roger Kornberg: RK (59). In 1959, Arthur Kornberg: AK (today: 88 years) and Severo Ochoa shared Nobel Prize of Medicine and Physiology for works related with the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA, respectively and for the studies of AK, about how genetic information is transferred from one DNA-molecule to another. In the video, AK, said that his son's work is amazing. RK, said the same of his father and something more. It is not the first time, as regards Nóbel Awards that a son equals or overcomes his father. How much does it influence to have as teacher to a father, payee of a Nobel Prize?. All know that 50% of the academic learning of a son, is carried out in their own home. To more education paternal, better learning quality. At home, the transmission of knowledge is carried out without compulsive schedules, without stréss and with the ideal number of participants: 2. To less students, more quality of the teaching/learning process.

If to somebody has to thank for good RK, is to his father : a self made man, in science. AK, of Jewish origin - refers in his autobiography - that his achievements were acquired with a lot of perspiration and faith. No way of RK, from who their nearer colleagues say that he works as an animal. RK seems also have inherited, his father's faith. With it he extracted of the darkness, many particularities of the cellular transcription, a process by means of which encoded, silent messages, located in DNA, are copied and sent (via, mRNA), to the cytoplasm, where after entered to another complex machinery (ribosomes), they allow the generation of proteins - basic buildings blocks, of cellular support - conforming final structures (entire body), of single and pluricelular organisms. One wonders why they didn't give to RK, the Prize Nóbel of Medicine, considering his work in the Medical School of Palo Alto/Stanford, in areas related with Genetics. The matter is that the vision of the mechanism of the transcription (with well-known generals for more than 30 years), has been transformed by RK, to another, where the biochemical simple reactions, are valued in function of the harmony and organization of myriad of atoms.

The machinery transcriptional (some 60 protein molecules : mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, endonucleases of unique and double chains, regulators, etc), copies with great fidelity : 10 letters of DNA or RNA, per / sec., without errors. If there is not fidelity in the one copied (intoxications for death cap, cancers, certain inflammatory affections, cardiac illnesses, etc.), the cell or, organism that contains them, will die. To avoid it, the machinery transcriptional, has 20 molecular casts of proof-reading and instantaneous elimination of errors. Studying transcriptions inside cells of breads yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae), RK has achieved: I) to see the mechanical synchrony of sequential steps of the one copied, without errors, in sequential perfect synchrony with their own plan and with other neighbors related and: II) that the conforming molecules of the mechanics of the transcriptión, are the same ones, be already animals, plants, fungi or protists, being the final differences among them, located in the particularities of the set of genes that has each species or individual.

De tal palo, tal astilla.

Conmueve contemplar el video propalado por el NYTimes (05/Octubre/2006), en el que Arthur y Roger Kornberg (padre e hijo), departen familiarmente a poco que la Real Academia Sueca de Ciencias, designase como único ganador del premio Nóbel de Quimica de este año, a Roger Kornberg : RK (59). En 1959, Arthur Kornberg : AK (hoy :88 años) y Severo Ochoa compartian el Premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiologia por trabajos relacionados con la biosíntesis del DNA y RNA, respectivamente. En el video, AK, afirma que el trabajo de su hijo es colosal. RK, dice lo mismo de su padre y algo más. No es la primera véz, en materia de Nóbeles, que un hijo iguala o supera al padre. ¿Cuánto influye tener como maestro a un padre, portador de un Premio Nobel?. Todos saben que el 50% del aprendizaje académico de un hijo, se realiza en su hogar. A más educación paterna, mejor calidad de aprendizaje. En casa, la trasmisión de conocimientos se dá sin horarios compulsivos, sin estrés y con el número ideal de participantes : 2. A menos alumnos, más calidad del proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje.

Si a alguien tiene que agradecerle el buen RK, es a su padre : un self made man, en ciencia. AK, de ascendencia judia -refiere en su autobiografía- que sus logros fueron adquiridos con mucho sudor y, fé. Ni hablar de RK, de quien sus colegas más cercanos dicen que trabaja como un animal. RK parece haber heredado tambien, la fé de su padre. Con ella, extrajo de las tinieblas, muchas particularidades de la transcripción celular, un proceso mediante el cual mensajes codificados, silentes, ubicados en el DNA, son copiados y enviados (via, mRNA), al citoplasma, donde trás ingresar a otra compleja maquinaria (ribosomas), permiten la generación de proteinas -bloques básicos, de soporte celular- conformantes estructurales finales (soma), de organismos uni y pluricelulares. Uno se pregunta porque no le dieron a RK, el Premio Nóbel de Medicina, considerando su labor en la Escuela de Medicina de Palo Alto/Stanford, en áreas relacionadas con la Genética. El asunto es que la visión del mecanismo de la transcripción (con generales conocidas desde hace más de 30 años), ha sido transformada por RK, por otra, donde las simples reacciones bioquímicas, son valoradas en función de la armonia y organización de miriadas de átomos.

La maquinaria transcripcional (unas 60 moléculas proteicas : mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, endonucleasas de cadenas simples y dobles, reguladores, etc), copia con gran fidelidad : 10 letras de DNA o RNA, p/sec., sin errores. Si no hay fidelidad en el copiado (intoxicaciones por agarica, cánceres, ciertas afecciones inflamatorias, enfermedades cardiacas, etc.), la celula u, organismo que los contiene muere. Para evitar ello, la maquinaria transcripcional, cuenta con 20 dispositivos moleculares de relecturas del copiado y eliminación instantánea de errores. Estudiando transcripciones en el interior de células de levadura de la cerveza (Saccharomyces cerevisae), RK ha logrado : I) ver la sincronía mecanica de los pasos del copiado, en sucesión -paso a paso- sin errores, en perfecta sincronia secuencial con su propio plan y con otros vecinos y : II) que las moléculas conformantes de la mecánica de la trancripción, son las mismas, se trate ya de animales, plantas, hongos o, protistas, estando las diferencias finales entre ellos, ubicadas en las particularidades de los set de genes, que cada especie u individuo, porta.

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