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Sunday, October 26, 2008

ERWIN SCHRODINGER




I) The scientific portrait of Erwin Schrődinger (Prize Nóbel/1933/Wave Mechanic), deployed in Der Spiegel, come back to a scientist of Einstein's same size. It cares of his work, the math descripctión of quantum mechanics that we use in chemical reactions and subatomic particles until today, and his innovators ideas in the area of the Biogenétic. When in "What is Life. The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell" (1944), hipotetized the existence of an cell order inserted in aperiódic crystals, it was evident that he suggested the existence of a genetic code, delegating a central role to the "omnipotent gene" that "autorganized systems". If in this work we discover a scientist with innovative, deep and clear thoughts, in "Mind and Matter" (1956), we discover a philosopher asking himself : "how finds each individual, his place in a changing and complex world?. Schrödinger did approach scientific problems, in a way not imagined previously. His thought -that cost what is worth a feather and a paper- was heir of the ideas of Schopenhauer, Hindu wisdom, Ernst Mach and the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. A free thinker that still in some of the strange experiments that he carried out, was always a loner, a fellow, independent, active in many areas, more than anchored in a single place. A versatile and deep scientist that united seemingly separate phenomena, opening interpretations based on principles, more than in conclusions. While conventional scientific realization absorbed scientific problems in math formulas, closing the case, Schrődinger, put queries, returning again and again to the topic, reinterpreting the phenomena from the beginning, generating new hypóthesis, leaving solutions but of the times without answer neither scientific realization (Schrődinger’ style).

II) In "Mind and Matter", he wrote "How it is possible that existing an unique natural phenomenon, do exist an infinite variety of representations and interpretations -as each observer's perspectives does exist-?. He argue that multiplicity is apparent, due to our limited capacity mental and our unskillful to obtain continuous answers of nature. We are not still in position, of saying what really happens in the world. Alone we can describe that observed in individual concrete cases. We are outside of the material world, of which we are alone spectators. As long as, the sensations and ideas don't belong to the world of energy, it cares to remember that our scientific vision of the world, lacks ethical and aesthetic values. A material world conceived by force of extracting our self (mind with values). Ideas that have allowed us to understand better how we enthrone the things of the world by means of our senses (perception) or by means of concepts (experience), in appropriate synthesis linked to Hegel's history of philosophy and Darwinist evolutionism, echoes of the Perspectivism and/or Theory of the Relativity. It continues being clear then that we don't know a lot about the world, that it continues being complex in spite of all our discoveries. Like Newton, in My view of the world (1961), he sustains the existence of an universal unique conscience (Oneness of mind) and a reverence for the life, emphasizing that plurality is a false construction, what counts is the unit. As long as each one of his texts continues stimulating our consciences, Schrődinger will continue alive.

III) Schrődinger’s legacy is that his ideas have facilitated a new synthesis of sciences of life that consider today alive systems, as open, and self-organized in order to maximize its ecological sustainability, in which that everything is more than sum of the parts. An everything in term of relationships and processes. An open system with need of feeding with continuous flows of matter and environmental energy, to continue be alive. Systems analyzable today, by means of non linear math and patterns of cybernetic organization in which stand out closed loops, networks, feedbacks, self-regulation and self-organization. Appropriate systems to math patterns (interrelationships, order, quality), structural (constituents, matter, quantity) and organization (interrelationships among components of the system). Alive organisms are far from equilibrium, what allows them to evolve, adcquire spontaneous order and self-organization, base of development, learning and evolution. Organisms in equilibrium, are dead organisms. Self-perpetuation of alive networks, conditioning the emergency of knowledges, fundamental characteristic of life processes (I Think, then I exist). When arguing Ilya Prigogine (Chemistry Prize Nobel, 1977) and Fritjof Capra that cognitive, alive systems, with perceptions, emotions and behavior don't necessarily require brains with nervous systems, they agree with the potential creation of intelligent artificial systems (AI).

ERWIN SCHRODINGER

I) La semblanza de Erwin Schrődinger (Premio Nóbel/1933/Mecánica ondulatoria), desplegada en Der Spiegel, retrotrae a un cientifico de la misma talla de Einstein, Bohr y otros. Importa de su obra, la descripcción matemática de la mecánica cuántica, que usamos en reacciones quimicas y partículas subatómicas hasta hoy, y sus innovadoras ideas en en el área de la Biogenética. Cuando en “What is Life. The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell" (1944), hipotetizó la existencia de un orden celular contenido en cristales aperiódicos, fué evidente que sugería la existencia de un código genético, delegando un rol central al “gene omnipotente”, que ”autorganizaba sistemas". Si en esta obra descubrimos a un científico con pensamientos innovadores, profundos y claros, en “Mind and Matter" (1956), descubrimos a un filósofo autopreguntándose: “¿como encuentra cada individuo, su lugar en un mundo cambiante y complejo?. Schrödinger abordó problemas cientificos, de un modo no imaginado previamente. Su pensamiento -que costó lo que vale una pluma y un papel- era heredero de las ideas de Schopenhauer, la sabiduria hindú, Ernst Mach y la fenomenología de Edmund Husserl. Un libre pensador, que aún en algunos de los raros experimentos que realizó, fué siempre un solitario, un fellow, independiente, activo en muchas áreas, más que anclado en un solo lugar. Un cientifico versátil y profundo, que unia fenómenos aparentemente separados, aperturando interpretaciones basadas en principios, más que en conclusiones. Mientras la realización cientifica convencional absorbia problemas cientificos en fórmulas matemáticas, cerrando el caso, Schrődinger, aperturaba interrogantes, regresando una y otra vez al tema, reinterpretando los fenómenos desde el inicio, generando neohipótesis, dejando las mas de las veces las soluciones sin respuesta ni realización cientifica (estilo Schrődinger).

II) En "Mind and Matter", escribe ”¿Como es posible que existiendo un fenómeno natural único, exista una infinita variedad de representaciones e interpretaciones -como perspectivas de cada observador existen-?. Arguye entonces, que la multiplicidad es aparente, que nuestra capacidad mental individual limitada, es hasta hoy inhábil para obtener respuestas continuas de la naturaleza. Que no estamos en posición aún, de decir que es lo que realmente sucede en el mundo. Solo podemos describir lo observado en casos concretos individuales, estamos fuera del mundo material, del que solo somos espectadores. En tanto, las sensaciones e ideas no pertenecen al mundo de la energía, importa recordar que la visión científica del mundo creada por la ciencia, carece de valores éticos y estéticos. Un mundo material concebido a fuerza de extraer al yo (mente, con valores). Ideas que han permitido comprender mejor como entronizamos las cosas del mundo mediante los sentidos (percepción) o mediante conceptos (experiencia), en síntesis adecuadas a los moldes de la historia de la filosofia de Hegel y al evolucionismo Darwinista, ecos a su véz del Perspectivismo y/o Teoria de la Relatividad. Sigue siendo claro entonces, que no sabemos mucho, que el mundo sigue siendo complejo a despecho de todos nuestros descubrimientos. Al igual que Newton, en My view of the world (1961 ), sostiene la existencia de una conciencia única universal (Oneness of mind) y una filosofia de reverencia por la vida, enfatizando que la pluralidad es una construcción falsa, lo que cuenta es la unidad. En tanto cada uno de sus textos continúe estimulando nuestras conciencias, Schrődinger continuará vivo.
III) El legado de Schrődinger es que sus ideas han posibilitado una nueva sintesis de las ciencias de la vida, que estiman hoy a los sistemas vivos, como abiertos, autorganizados a si mismos para maximizar su sostenibilidad ecológica, en las que el todo es más que la suma de las partes. Un todo en término de relaciones y procesos. Un sistema abierto con necesidad de alimentarse con flujos continuos de materia y energía ambiental, para continuar vivo. Sistemas analizables hoy, mediante matemáticas no lineares y patrones de organización cibernética en las que resaltan asas cerradas, redes, feedbacks, auto-regulación y auto-organización. Sistemas adecuados a patrones matemáticos (interrelaciones, orden, calidad), relaciones estructurales (constituyentes, materia, cantidad) y organización (relaciones entre componentes del sistema). Organismos vivos alejados del equilibrio, lo que les permite evolucionar, acceder a espontaneas emergencias de orden y auto-organización, base del desarrollo, aprendizaje y evolución. Los organismos en equilibrio, son organismos muertos. Auto-perpetuación de redes vivas, condicionando emergencias de cognición, característica fundamental del proceso de la vida (Pienso, luego existo). Al argüir Ilya Prigogine y Fritjof Capra, que los sistemas vivos cognitivos, con percepciones, emociones y conducta no requieren necesariamente cerebros con sistemas nerviosos, han dejado en claro la potencial creación de sistemas artificiales inteligentes (AI).

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