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Friday, January 06, 2012

QUIMERIC MONKEYS


In a recent technological experiment that open new therapeutic avenues for various human diseases, a team of researchers led by Shoukhrat Mitalipow (Oregon Health Sciences/University of Portland), managed to add groups of 4-dividing cells, coming from 6 embryos from different monkeys, forming the first neonatal chimeras composed of genetic material from 6 rhesus monkeys. Being very young embryonic cells, the mixture was composed of totipotent cells (which form any kind of tissues, including extraembryonic). Each chimeric embryo received genetic material from 6 different Rhesus monkeys.

Chimeras may contain genetic material from different species (animal-human, for example). Although the journal Cell which published the article refers that newborn monkeys were healthy and normal, we know that although 3 monkeys externally were males, 4% of their cells carried two X chromosomes, being genetically female. In this case the cells do not fuse with each other, but rather work together to form tissues and organs. Conclusions: 1) Allows us to have new knowledge about the specific nature of different species 2) It seems not feasible to create chimeras from pluripotent cells (not form extraembryonic tissues) 3) Someone will come up to create chimeras containing human-animal brains for experimental purposes. Many nations will not approve or oppose to this kind of experiments.

MONOS QUIMERICOS

En un experimento tecnológico que apertura nuevas avenidas terapéuticas para distintas enfermedades humanas, un equipo de investigadores encabezados por Shoukhrat Mitalipow (Oregon Health Sciences/Universidad de Portland), consiguió agregar grupos de 4 células -en división- procedentes de 6 embriones distintos de monos, formando las primeras quimeras neonatales compuestas por material genético procedente de 6 monos Rhesus. Tratándose de células de embriones muy jóvenes, la mezcla estuvo compuesta por células totipotenciales (formadoras de cualquier tipo de tejidos, incluyendo los extraembrionarios). Así, cada embrión quimérico recibió la herencia genética de 6 monos Rhesus diferentes.

Las quimeras pueden contener material genético de diferentes especies (animal-humano, por ejemplo). Aunque la revista Cell que publicó el articulo alude que nacieron sanos y normales, se sabe que aunque 3 monos fueron externamente machos, 4% de sus células portaban 2 cromosomas X, siendo genéticamente femeninas. En este caso las células no se fusionan entre si, mas bien trabajan juntas para formar tejidos y órganos. Conclusiones: 1) Permite tener nuevos conocimientos acerca de la naturaleza especifica de distintas especies 2) No es posible crear quimeras a partir de células pluripotenciales (las que no forman tejidos extraembrionarios) 3) A alguien se le ocurrirá crear quimeras conteniendo cerebros hombre-animal con fines experimentales. Muchas naciones no aprobaran o se opondrán a este tipo de experimentos.

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