IV) The competition between Russians and Americans continued without truce nor slows down, in the following years to the point that many American scientists consider until today that if the Sputnik -I-, had not been sent, the Apollo Program and the NASA, had delayed much in appearing. In the context of the competition, strange that journalists of the NYT, forgot the crucial roll of competition in the development of the German missile technology (that gave birth to russian and american rockets), forced to develop fast technological innovations, during the 2 world wars in which she participated actively. To the out of proportion American initial reaction (they feared that Russia will drop pumps to the USA from improved satellites), followed a great effort impelled by competition. America did not want to remain behind. When USA announced for the following year (1959), the launching of its first satellite (Explorer I), two surprises would appear: the collapse of one of its rockets Atlas soon after its takeoff and the launching of the Sputinik -II-, with an alive being on board: the Laika dog. The Russians responded in April (1961), sending to the first cosmonaut (Gagarin), who orbited the Earth. The Apollo, sent 8 astronauts (December, 1968), who orbited the Moon 10 times. On July/20th/1969, Neil Armstrong landed in the Moon. After it, Russians and Americans continued in the space race at reduced speed, sending robotic probes of low cost, to discover new borders (Venus, Mars, Titan, and external planets but of the Solar System).
V) Today, 50 years later, the space race continues although the actors and the pace has changed something. The human eye has extended its perspective thanks to the putting into orbit of powerful telescopes (Hubble, Spitzer), groups of countries have assembled the international space station (base of space long walks and biological experiments). They have arisen new rivals, like Europe (Galileo System -GPS- integrated by 30 interconnected satellites surrounding the Earth), India (astronauts in orbit, the 2014), China (human in the Moon, the 2018 and destruction of one of its satellites with an operated by remote control missile), Japan (mission to orbit the Itokawa asteroid) and Russia (monopoly of ferrys). VI) Some futurológists, foresee that 2 great motivations will impulse a group of visionaries to continue developing the space reconnaissance: a) risks/gains, enterprises: space hotels, airports, operation of mineral resources of asteroids and planets, development of new medicines in the space, etc. b) development of new and more powerful arms, some of which, are in consolidation process (anti-missile shields, war of the galaxies). VII) Finally is the subject of manned trips (missions with humans towards the Moon and Mars), to which USA and China has put great attention. By the way, do not scare us, the well-known dangers (increased radiation, isolation to never see the Earth more, weightlessness, lunar dust, Martian dust, virulent germs, loss of muscular mass, lack of resources common in the Earth, etc). We asked ourselves: why not to bet by simpler, logical and sensible eploratory space programs?. Why, to send humans?. It is not necessary. We must bet rather by one second robotic phase (the first was the launching of space probes). Why not to perfect and to send robots (robots-drivers, robots-explorers), instead of humans?. Next to their exploratory capacities, the robots must be the ones in charge of earth-like changes (transporting DNA inserted in amber crystals, seeds and embryos of animals,etc) in whichever satellite or planet to be discovered and colonized. In the worse of the cases, humans can remain in space orbiters stations of planets to be conquered, to descend and to make the definitive colonization, single when the conditions are adequate.
El SPUTNIK -I-: 50 AÑOS DESPUES.