Friday, September 28, 2007

I AM READING:¨THE LEARNING BRAIN.


Tests made (2004-2006), by the Ministry of Education of Peru and the OCDE, to students of highschools, coming from public and private schools, revealed that single 13% of the evaluated ones pass of understanding of reading and mathematical reasoning, signaling that Peruvian public instruction is methodologically old fashioned. Inferring from it, that great part of Peruvian education persists yet with anchors to postulates of Maria Montessori (Italian teacher and psychiatrist: 1870-1952), based on behavior methodologies of children and adolescents, with little attachment to brain neurophysiology. In some public and most of private highschools prime the methodology of Jean Piaget (1896-1980, more outpost than the previous one, cradle in psycho-evolutionary-cognitive correlations). Concluding that actual Peruvian public teaching, still seats its bases in repetition and memorization. Piaget, who created the genetic epistemology (development of thought and knowledge acquisition through successive stages, with emphasis in perceptual and intellectual development of children and adolescents), postulated that children between 7-11 years, single are able to conduct concrete operations, in as much the located ones between : 11 years and the end of the adolescence, are able to conduct abstractions and hypothetical-deductive operations. However, the works of Piaget, also lack solid neurophisiologycal bases. In the last years the development of research in learning associated to enormous knowledge of brain operations threat with collapsing established paradigms leading us eventually to levels of learning never imagined. The cognitive neuroscientifics Sarah-Jayne Blakemore and Uta Frith (University College of London, “The Learning brain¨, Blackwell Publishing, Ariel, Amazon, 2007), postulate: a) Not to be in agreement with the principle that assumes that after 40 years, dies 100 000 neurons daily. Contrary, they argue that new neurons are created throughout the life, agreed certain circumstances, does not existing limit of age for learning, being needed to it only exercise the brain, daily. b) In the book is insisted that learning requires favorable environment. The impoverished sensorial mediums omments limit the establishment of new neuronal connections and learning, existing critical periods: early childhood, adolescence.

c) It would exist different cerebral organizations between alphabetized and not alphabetized adults. To learn mathematics, differs to learn to read. d) That non solved emotional problems can affect the cerebral development and learning. e) That during the 3 first months of pregnancy happens the first big wave of neuronal abundance and connections (neurogénesis), at the same time that a pruning of connections, surviving single the genetically favored ones, the necessary and those that are used frequently. That education must consider these changes. f) In as much the humans has very developed the gift of imagination the systems multimedia are the best ones for learning. The learning with concrete words is easier to remember. g) That brain plasticity (cerebral adjustment), continues in adults. Taxi drivers of London increase the size of their posterior hypocampus and diminish the size of their anterior hypocampus, after long years of activity. The damaged brains develop compensatory strategies, existing also fast adaptations: the subject that learns to touch the violin develop an enormous representation of their hands in the motor cortex. h) that lacks to develop a common vocabulary between neuroscientifics, cognitive psychologists and teachers. i) In the puberty exist a new neuro-conexional abundance (frontal cortex), emerging executive functions, of planning, selection, to make 2 things simultaneously,etc. A new pruning allows single to survive the useful connections to conduct complex operations in the work and the social thing. In sum, the critic ages for education happen between: 0-3 years and 10-15 years. j) The physical exercise and diet influence in the optimal learning. That a fatty acid ingestion of long chain (olives, peanut, etc), daily is recommendable for a suitable cerebral operation. k) That it is possible to learn during the dream. l) That it is possible to develop muscles (13.5%), just by to imagine it. That inadequate dream limits the learning. That a dream after learning a task improves the efficiency. m) That an adapted use of the hypnosis can improve the learning and productivity. n) that certain drugs and herbs (ginseng), can improve the memory and learning. ñ) For us the development of a new neuronal abundance around the 40 years would be highly recommendable. For it, the development of enterprises of risk to this age would have to be promoted, access to the university, promotion of interpersonal relations without limits of age and eventually promote the seed of certain cerebral areas (motor cortex, Broca area, etc), with stem cells.

COMO APRENDE EL CEREBRO

Tests realizados (2004-2006), por el Ministerio de Educación del Perú y la OCDE, á alumnos de secundaria, procedentes de colegios públicos y privados, revelaron que solo el 13% de los evaluados aprobaron exámenes de comprensión de lectura y razonamiento matemático, poniendo de relieve que la instrucción pública peruana gira sobre métodologias anticuadas. Infiriéndose que gran parte de la educación peruana persiste con anclas a los postulados de Maria Montessori (pedagoga y psiquiatra italiana:1870-1952), basados en metodologías conductuales de niños y adolescentes, con poco apego a la neurofisiología cerebral. En algunos colegios nacionales y en la mayoría de los privados prima la metodología de Jean Piaget (1896-1980, más avanzada que la anterior, basada en correlaciones psico-evolutivas-cognitivas). Concluyéndose que la pedagogía pública actual peruana, aún asienta sus bases en la repetición y memorización. Piaget creador de la epistemología genética (desarrollo del pensamiento y adquisición de conocimientos a través de sucesivos estadios etáreos, explicantes del desarrollo perceptual e intelectual de niños y adolescentes), postuló que los niños entre 7-11 años, solo son capaces de desarrollar operaciones concretas, en tanto los ubicados entre los 11 años y el final de la adolescencia, son capaces de desarrollar abstracciones y operaciones hipotético-deductivas. No obstante, los trabajos de Piaget, también carecen de bases neurofisiológicas sólidas. En los últimos años el desarrollo del aprendizaje asociado a ingentes conocimientos del funcionamiento cerebral amenaza con derrumbar paradigmas establecidos conduciéndonos a niveles de aprendizaje nunca imaginados. Las neurocientificas cognitivas Sarah-Jayne Blakemore y Uta Frith (University College de Londres, “Como aprende el cerebro” (Blackwell Publishing, Ariel, Amazon, 2007), postulan : a) no estar de acuerdo con el principio que asume que después de los 40 años, mueren 100 000 neuronas diariamente. Contrariamente, ellas arguyen que nuevas neuronas son creadas a lo largo de la vida, acorde a ciertas circunstancias, no existiendo limite de edad para el aprendizaje, necesitándose para ello tan solo ejercitar el cerebro, diariamente b) En el libro se insiste que el aprendizaje requiere de medios ambientes favorables. Los medios sensoriales empobrecidos limitan el establecimiento de nuevas conexiones neuronales y el aprendizaje, existiendo periodos criticos :infancia temprana, adolescencia.

c) Existirian distintas organizaciones cerebrales entre adultos alfabetizados y no alfabetizados. Que aprender matemáticas, difiere de aprender a leer. d) Que problemas emocionales irresueltos pueden afectar el desarrollo cerebral y el aprendizaje. e) que durante los 3 primeros meses de la gestación ocurre la primera oleada de abundamiento neuronal y conexiones (neurogénesis), al mismo tiempo que una poda de conexiones, sobreviviendo solo las favorecidas genéticamente, las necesarias y las que se usan frecuentemente. Que la enseñanza deberia tener en cuenta estos cambios. f) En tanto los humanos tiene muy desarrollado el don de la imaginación los sistemas multimedia son los mejores para el aprendizaje. El aprendizaje con palabras concretas es más fácil de recordar. g) que la plasticidad cerebral (adecuación cerebral), continúa en los adultos. Los taxistas de Londres aumentan el tamaño de su hipocampo posterior y disminuyen el tamaño de su hipocampo anterior, tras largos años de actividad. Los cerebros dañados desarrollan estrategias compensatorias, existiendo asimismo adaptaciones rápidas : el sujeto que aprende a tocar violin desarrolla una enorme representación de sus manos en la corteza motora. h) que falta desarrollar un vocabulario común entre neurocientificos, psicólogos cognitivos y pedagogos. i) que en la pubertad se desarrolla un nuevo abundamiento neuro-conexional (corteza frontal), emergiendo funciones ejecutivas, de planificación, selección, hacer 2 cosas a la véz, etc. Una nueva poda permite solo la sobrevivencia de conexiones útiles para desarrollar operaciones complejas en el trabajo y en lo social. En suma, las edades criticas para la enseñanza ocurren entre los : 0-3 años y 10-15 años. j) El ejercicio físico y la dieta influyen en el aprendizaje óptimo. Que una ingesta adecuadas de ácidos grasos de cadena larga (aceitunas, mani, etc), diariamente es recomendable para un adecuado funcionamiento cerebral. k) Que es posible aprender durante el sueño. i) Que es posible desarrollar musculatura (13,5%), con solo imaginarlo. Que el sueño inadecuado limita el aprendizaje. Que una siesta después de aprender una tarea mejora el rendimiento. m) Que un adecuado empleo de la hipnosis mejora el aprendizaje y la productvidad n) que ciertas drogas y yerbas (ginseng), pueden mejorar la memoria y el aprendizaje. ñ) Para nosotros el desarrollo de un nuevo abundamiento neuronal alrededor de los 40 años seria altamente recomendable. Para ello, debería promoverse el desarrollo de empresas de riesgo a esta edad, acceso a la universidad, promoción de relaciones interpersonales, sin limite de edad y resembrado de ciertas areas cerebrales (corteza motora, area de Broca,etc), con células madre.

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